A natural approach to project management

Numerous studies have tried to assign responsibility for the high rate of project failure to uncontrollable external factors or to faulty project execution. The implicit rules underlying such traditional project management techniques as CPM or PERT contain four unfounded assumptions: 1) the techniques will be used in a command-oriented management structure; 2) tools and physical resources are the main limiting and constraining factors; 3) users know exactly what they want; and 4) individual tasks are concrete and objective elements that are both interdependent and discrete. This article argues that none of these four assumptions hold in typical systems integration projects where a more flexible, flow-oriented approach works better.
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