Bibliography on the project manager and project organization

The editors of the PMQ felt it would be useful to the membership to have a bibliography on research and practices in project management. We are therefore presenting a two-part selected bibliography. The bibliography below is on the role of the project manager and the nature of the project management organization. In a subsequent issue we will present a selected bibliography on project management planning, scheduling and control techniques.

Most of the articles cited are annotated.

Archibald, Russell D., “Planning, Scheduling, and Controlling the Efforts of Knowledge Workers.” Long Beach, Calif.: M. J. Richardson, Inc., Management Consultants, October, 1969, 15 pp.

Projects are defined and their management discussed.

Avots, Ivars (Management consultant with Arthur D. Little), “Why Does Project Management Fail?” Management Review, January 1970, published by AMA.

Lists seven reasons for project failure.

Bain, James, Jr. (Lt. Col.), “A Self-Appraisal for Project Managers.” Defense Industry Bulletin, October 1966, pp. 3-6.

Baumgartner, John Stanley, Project Management. Homewood, 111.: Richard D. Irwin, Inc., 1963, 185 pp.

Discusses project management in terms of planning, control, developing the project team, fiscal management and cost control, profit maintenance, customer relations, stopping work, and extending the work beyond the contract.

Bennigson, L. A. and Nixon, John, “Educational Program Management: A Project Management System Application and Discussion.” Proceedings of the Project Management Institute, October 1970.

Discusses the use of project management techniques in an HEW funded educational project.

Blanchard, Gary F. and Cook, Desmond L., Project Management and Educational Change. Educational Program Management Center, March 5, 1970.

Bowie, Robert M., “The Project Overlay System of Research Organization.” IRE Transactions on Engineering Management, IV (September, 1957), pp. 105-108.

Describes the use of project management for research and development groups.

Brooks, Herbert B., “Efficiency of Complex Projects.” IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 13, NY, 1966, p. 128.

Certain factors which control efficiency multiply against each other. The remedy is to identify multifactors and to improve them or reduce their influence.

Brooks, L. O., “A Study in Improving Performance of Complex Tasks.” American Institute for Research, January 1970.

Burns, James, “Effective Management of Programs.” Studies in Organizational Design, ed. Lorsch, J. W. and Lawrence, P. R.; Irwin Dorsey, 1970.

Camp, William E., “Executive Direction of Projects.” Handbook of Industrial Research Management, Carl Heyel (ed.). New York: Reinhold Publishing Corporation, 1959, pp. 209-233.

This article deals with management of basic research projects.

Cicero, John P. and Wilemon, David L., “Project Authority – a Multidimensional View.” IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, May 1970.

_______, The Professional and Technical Qualifications of Apollo Project Managers, Clearinghouse N70-14845, (Syracuse Univ.), Aug. 1969.

_______, The Spectrum of Project Management, Clearinghouse N70-21121, (Syracuse Univ.), Dec. 1968.

Cleland, David I., “Key Problems for Project Management Systems Developers.” Proceedings of the Project Management Institute, October, 1970.

Examines the conceptual framework of project management, particularly in terms of the project-functional interface.

_______, “Organization Dynamics of Project Management.” IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, No. 13, NY, 1966, p. 201.

Discusses the role of the project manager. His responsibility is to the successful completion of a specific assignment, rather than to a structure of hierarchy.

_______, “Understanding Project Authority.” Business Horizons, Spring 1967.

Examines the nature of authority for the project manager.

_______, “Why Project Management?” Business Horizons, VII (Winter, 1964), pp. 81-88.

This paper indicates in very explicit terms, the functions and interrelationships of a project manager.

_______ and King, William R. Ed., Systems, Organizations, Analysis, Management: A Book of Readings, McGraw-Hill Company, New York, 1969.

A book of useful readings on planning, systems analysis, project management, and the management process. Particularly important are sections 7 and 8.

Cook, Desmond L., “A Generalized Project Management System Model.” Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University, November, 1968.

This paper presents the outline of a generalized model for the management of educational projects.

Cook, Desmond L., “The Nature of Project Management.” Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University, June, 1968. (Preliminary draft of a chapter for a book entitled Educational Project Management to be published by Charles E. Merrill, Co.)

Project management is introduced and is defined in terms of its four characteristics.

_______, “Some Economic Considerations in Educational Project Planning.” Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University, July 1968.

This paper deals with the economic function of project planning.

_______, “A New Approach to the Planning and Management of Educational Research.” Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University, 1964.

Paper presents an introduction to the concepts of project management. Terms are defined and discussed at an elementary level.

Cronin, T. C., “Management by Task Force.” Harvard Business Review, November-December 1962.

Dale, Leon A. and Gakula, William, “Managers for a Changing Society.” Personnel Administration, XXXIII (January-February, 1970), pp. 8-16.

Examines the requirements for a manager in the twentieth century.

Davis, Keith, “Mutuality in Understanding of the Program Manager’s Management Role.” IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 12, NY, 1965, p. 17.

The program manager’s understanding of his management role is compared with his superior’s and his subordinates’ understanding of it.

_______, (Arizona State University), “The Role of Project Management in Scientific Manufacturing.” IRE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 9, #3.

Divides project management in four distinct types and discusses types of control and interactions.

Dillman, Duane H. and Cook, Desmond L., “Simulation in the Training of R&D Project Managers.” Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University, February, 1969, 20 pp.

Discusses the use of simulation materials for the training of project managers for education.

Ditty, Lois, “Need for Training Prior to Program Management.” New York: The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, September, 1967, 5 pp.

Indicates the need for and problems involved in training program managers and staff assistants.

Druker, E. E., et al., Project Management in the Apollo Program. Clearinghouse N70-31745, (Syracuse Univ.), Apr. 1970.

Eyring, Henry B., “Some Sources of Uncertainty and Their Consequences in Engineering Design Projects.” IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 13, NY, 1966, p. 167.

The intent of the study is to identify what first-line technical supervisors perceive as the causes of uncertainty in their design work.

Fisch, Gerald G., “Line-Staff is Obsolete and Should be Replaced by the Functional-Teamwork Concept.” Harvard Business Review, XXXIX (September-October, 1961), pp. 67-79.

This paper describes the problems inherent in line-staff organization and offers a functional-teamwork concept as a replacement.

Gaddis, Paul O., “The Project Manager.” Harvard Business Review, XXXVII (May-June, 1959), pp. 89-97.

Considers the functions of a project manager from the viewpoint of duties, type of man required for the job, and necessary training for success.

______, “The Project Manager: His Role in Advanced Technology Industry.” Westinghouse Engineer, XIX (July 1959). pp. 102-107.

Indicates three basic responsibilities of a project manager.

Garguilo, J. R., et al., “Developing Systematic Procedures for Directing Research Programs.” IRE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 8, NY, 1961, p. 24.

States that one of the most important functions of research management is to establish objective criteria for measuring the progress and performance of the research effort.

Gill, Paul G.,Systems Management Techniques for Builders and Contractors, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1968.

A book on the application of project management to construction programs. Not useful for other than construction applications.

Goodman, R. A., “Organization and Manpower Utilization in R&D.” IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 15, NY, 1968, p. 198.

Investigates the effects of two basic types of organizational form on the stability and flexibility of manpower in companies engaged in R&D. These are matrix and project management.

Haberstrok, C. J., et al., “Organizing for Product Innovation.” IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 15, NY, 1968, p. 20.

The management of commercial products arising from advanced technology presents a serious challenge to traditional practice. This article recounts an attempt by outside behavioral scientists to study such problems in one enterprise.

Hallman, L. B., Jr., “The Role of Management in the Development of an Aerospace System.” IRE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 9, #4, NY, 1962, p. 182.

Describes the evolution of general types of aerospace systems during three phases: Research, Engineering, and Sub-System integration.

Hanna, John R., “Project Management in an Educational Environment.” Proceedings of PMI, October 1970.

Hopeman, R. J., et al., A Project Management Approach to Interdisciplinary Research in Universities, Clearinghouse N70-21105, (Syracuse Univ.), June 9, 1969.

Howard, H. R., “Project Management in Software or Systems Contracting.” Proceedings of PMI, October 1970.

Iams, Harley (Hughes Aircraft – Assoc. Dir. of Guided Missile Research), “Some Factors Related to Management of Applied Research Project.” IRE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. #3, NY, 1955, p. 16.

Discusses problems related to management of the development of Weapons Systems (W.S.).

Imus, Henry (Mfg. Training Program, G.E. Flight Propulsion Lab.), “Dynamic Project Oriented Industrial Organization.” IRE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. #4, NY, 1957, p. 128.

Discussion of Project Orientation as a management approach which slashes design to shipping time.

Janger, Allen R., “Anatomy of the Project Organization.” Business Management Record, Nov. 1963.

Describes the position of the project manager in an organizational structure and the nature of his authority.

Kast, Fremont E. and Rosenzweig, James E., Organizations and Management: A Systems Approach. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1970, pp. 194-198; 226-267; 593-595.

These sections concerning program/project management commence with a discussion of the organization of project management.

Kearns, John H., III, Swartz, William F., and Snyder, Thomas A., “Project Management in the R&D Environment: A Man/Machine Interface Problem.” Proceedings of PMI, October, 1970.

Keats, E. S., “How to Become a Good Project Manager.” Aerospace Management, VI (August, 1963), pp. 20-23.

This article examines the role of the project manager in terms of his interrelationships with customers, superiors, and subordinates.

Kelly, Albert J., “Aerospace Management — Can it Move our Social Problems?” Astronautics & Aeronautics, August 1970.

Kurkjian, L. H., “Tools for Effective Project Management of Medium Size R&D Programs.” IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 10, NY, p. 70.

Describes four tools as aids to efficient project management.

Lawrence, Paul R. and Lorsch, Jay W., “New Management Job: The Integrator.” Harvard Business Review, VL (November-December, 1967), pp. 142-151.

The process of integration is defined as “the achievement of unity of effort among the major functional specialists in a business.”

Lazar, R. G. and Kellner, A. D., “Personnel and Organization Development in an R&D Matrix-Overlay Operation.” IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 11, NY, 1964, p. 78.

A matrix organization which seeks to achieve the advantages of both functional and project organization, is described.

Litterer, Joseph A., “Program Management Organizing for Stability and Flexibility.” Personnel, XL (September-October, 1963), pp. 25-34.

This article deals with the problems associated with rapid technological change and notes that while programs change, people do not.

Lock, Dennis L., Complete Guide to Project Management. Boston, Mass.: Cahners Publishing Co., 1969.

This text describes the rationale and methodology of project management in general terms.

_______, Project Management. Gower Press, London, 1968.

Good general book on most aspects of program management.

Longstreet, Victor M., “Management R&D.” Harvard Business Review, July-Aug. 1961, Vol. 39, No. 4, p. 125.

Luck, David J. and Nowak, Theodore, “Product Management – Vision Unfulfilled.” Harvard Business Review, May-June 1965.

Mahoney, T. A., “Predictors of Managerial Effectiveness.” Building the Executive Team. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1961, pp. 186-197.

Examines the various physical characteristics, abilities and skills, interests and personality traits which go into making a good manager.

Marks, C. H., “A New Breed: The Industrial Project Manager.” New York: The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, October, 1969, 8 pp.

Discusses four types of project management organizations. The role of the project manager is discussed in detail and his duties and responsibilities are enumerated.

________, ‘Project Management of Industrial Contracts.” Proceedings of PMI, October, 1970.

Marquis, D. G., “Ways of Organizing Projects.” Innovation, #5, 1969.

Mee, John F., “Matrix Organization.” Business Horizons, VII (Summer, 1964), pp. 70-72.

This article describes a matrix organization whereby a “manager is given the authority, responsibility, and accountability for the completion of the product.

Meinhart, W. A., “Key Problems in Project Management Applications.” Proceedings of PMI, October, 1970.

_______, and Delionback, Leon M., “Project Management: An Incentive Contracting Decision Model.” Academy of Management, Dec. 1968, pp. 427-434.

Middleton, C. J., “How to Set Up a Project Organization.” Harvard Business Review, March-April, 1967.

A discussion of the various forms that the project organization takes and the problems and benefits created by establishing a project organization.

Mordka, Irwin, “A Comparison of a R&D Laboratory’s Organization Structures.” IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 14, NY, 1967, p. 170.

Describes four major types of organization structures found in R&D laboratories.

Nelson, E. A., Some Recent Contributions to Computer Programming Management. Santa Monica, SDA, 16, April, 1968.

Discussion of the results of research on management of computer programming processes since 1963.

Norden, P. V., “On the Anatomy of Development Projects.” IRE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 7, NY, 1960, p. 34.

The structure of an R&D project is described in terms of an Effort-Distribution Array.

Perham, John, “Matrix Management: A Tough Game to Play.” Dun’s, August 1970, pp. 12-.

Ramstrom, D. and Rhenman, E., “A Method of Describing the Development of an Engineering Project.” IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 12, NY, 1965, p. 79.

Purpose of the article is to suggest a method for describing and analyzing the progress of an engineering project.

Randle, C. Wilson, “Problems of R&D Management.” Harvard Business Review, Jan.-Feb., 1959, Vol. 37, No. 1, p. 128.

Roden, A. E., “Functional or Project Engineering? A Case for Coexistence.” Machine Design, XXXVIII (February 17, 1966), pp. 148-153.

Deals with the management problem resulting from subordinates reporting to both a project manager and a functional manager.

Roman, Daniel D., Research and Development Management: The Economics and Administration of Technology. New York: Appelton-Century-Crofts, 1968, 450 pp. (Chapter II: Project Management, pp. 231-267).

Discusses the four phases in the life cycle of a project. The position and qualifications of the project manager are discussed.

Rothstein, A. J., “Impact of Effectiveness Concepts on the Project Manager.” New York: The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, October, 1969. 5 pp.

A matrix of a project manager’s effectiveness versus types of project change is provided for use as a tool in the evaluating process.

Rubin, J. M. and Seeling, Wychan, “Experience as a Factor in the Selection and Performance of Project Managers.” IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 14, NY, 1967. p. 131.

Reports on a study of project managers’ experience.

Schaidt, Leander (Member Martin Company), “Program Management Techniques at Martin-Orlando.” IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 10, NY, 1963, p. 134.

Describes system of program management and program control used at Martin-Orlando.

Scott, Paul and Joyce, Robert, “Project Management for Urban Improvement.” Proceedings of PMI, October, 1970.

Steiner, George A. and Ryan, William G., Industrial Project Management. New York: Columbia University Graduate School of Business, The Macmillan Co., 1968, 243 pp.

Discusses the nature of project management, indicating four typical characteristics of a project manager.

Stewart, John M., “Making Project Management Work.” Business Horizons.

Presents guidelines for the effective usage of project management techniques.

Strickroth, Giles J., “Weapons System Management.” IRE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 4, #1, New York, March 1957, p. 1.

Analysis of the organizational structure used at Glenn L. Martin Company for the development of Weapons Systems.

Uman, David B., New Product Programs: Their Planning and Control, American Management Association, Inc., 1969.

Project management applied to new product development in the corporation. Wrong environment, but good discussion of the concepts.

Wickesberg, A. K. and Cronin, T. C., “Management by Task Force.” Harvard Business Review, November-December 1962.

A discussion of when and how to manage projects by the task force approach.

Wilemon, David, “Transferring Space-Age Management Technology.” The Conference Board Record, October 1970.

_______, and Cicero, John P., “The Project Manager — Anomalies and Ambiguities.” Academy of Management Journal, September 1970.

_______, et al., The Apollo Project Manager, Anomalies and Ambiguities. Clearinghouse N69-35986, (Syracuse Univ.), June 1969, pp. 20.

_______, Managing Product Development Systems: A Project Management Approach. Clearinghouse N70-21106, (Syracuse Univ.), Oct. 1969, pp. 18.

Wallmark, J. T. and Sellerberg, B., “Efficiency Vs. Size of Research Teams.” IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. ED-13, No. 3, September 1966, pp. 137-142.


Educational Project Management by Desmond L. Cook

Charles E. Merrill Company

This book is designed as an introduction to the role that project management can play in the field of educational research and development.

Management Information Systems: Concepts, Techniques, and Applications by James Jerome O’Brien

Van Norstrand Reinhold Company

One of the biggest problems facing management today is how to use computers effectively to cut costs and increase efficiency. A wealth of answers exists in the experience of others but that experience has been largely unrecorded – until now. Now it is available in this new book — sorted, analyzed, and organized in clear, usable order for executives with or without computer background. Here, you will find a clear definition of the concepts and components of MIS, the areas in which they can be applied effectively, how, and actual examples of successful applications.


This material has been reproduced with the permission of the copyright owner. Unauthorized reproduction of this material is strictly prohibited. For permission to reproduce this material, please contact PMI.



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