Managing external risks for international architectural, engineering, and construction (AEC) firms operating in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states
International projects involve both uncertainties raised domestically and external risks in international transactions. Through a questionnaire survey and case studies among architectural, engineering, and construction (AEC) firms operating in the Gulf, this study found 36.5% external risk factors that should be contemplated before the award of contracts and 53.9% afterward to ensure smooth running. The study shows which kinds of risks are ranked the most important ones in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states. An external risk breakdown structure (E-RBS) and a framework for foreign AEC firms operating in GCC states were developed for users to identify and respond to external risks in a more systematic manner. International firms outside Malaysia are strongly advised to use the framework for risk forecasting and mitigation when operating in the Gulf.