Organizational culture and project leader effectiveness

There are generally two types of project managers when examining this role in relation to an organization's culture: There are the cultural reactors and the culturally proactive. This article examines the cultural processes most organizations use and describes the methods project managers use to recognize, change, and adapt to their organization's many cultures (enterprise, department, project team) as well as to their clients' many cultures. It explains the benefits of developing cultural awareness, the purpose of culture, and the ways in which culture is communicated; it describes a model for identifying four different types of cultures, a model based on the Jungian Framework for understanding culture. It then examines the model's four culture types (clan, market, hierarchical, adhocracy) in relation to the cultures embraced by four well-known corporations--Intel, Proctor & Gamble, Meridian Telephone, Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing (3M). It analyzes each company's culture in relation to its appearance, myths and stories, rituals, and decision-making style. It also describes two processes--data collecting and conclusion-making--for identifying culture type and outlines strategies for managing projects in the four types of cultures previously identified. It additionally explains two methods that project managers can use to create team cultures and examines the benefits and the dangers of supporting internal countercultures.
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