Foundations of project management research
an explicit and six-facet ontological framework
This article proposes a new, explicit, and integrated ontological framework to stimulate project management research. It begins by presenting the project management field as an academic discipline and discusses its hard core (project and project management). The origins and meanings of project and project management are also reviewed. It examines the ontological foundations beneath project management and shows that the conceptions of project and project management are not only grounded in successive periods in the history of the social world, but that these modern, postmodern, and hypermodern perspectives coexist. It then addresses the extant ontological question in current project management literature and finds that it is characterized by a sort of ontological dualism or either/or project ontology. It then suggests a move away from a dualist perspective in addressing the ontological question toward an integrated perspective characterized by duality.