The scholarship of integration
This article addresses the question of how best to educate project managers and suggests that we are returning to an updated version of the apprenticeship paradigm. The principles of scientific management worked well during the era of increasing automation and labor specialization and were carried over into the education system. Professionalization became the norm in the United States during the 20th century. More recently, such trends as globalization, technological advances, and consumer demands for tailored products has enabled project management to emerge as a powerful tool. In today's post-industrial economy, the emphasis is on integrated, cross-disciplinary efforts. Traditional education can help train tomorrow's project managers by becoming more interdisciplinary, focusing on practical applications, and partnering with project professionals.