PM under rampant inflation
meeting cost and schedule objectives in Brazil
The Brazilian State of Rio de Janerio is reknown for its culture, its heritage--and its annual carnival. Each March, for four continuous days, the city revels in excitement generated by the world's most famous folk festival. To accommodate the 70,000 visitors who gather to view the carnival's parades, the city built a US$15 million stadium--a complex known as Passarela do Samba [Samba Paradegrounds], which includes a structure serving as the Samba museum--capable of accommodating the event's numerous parades, activities which previously occurred on Rio's streets and required the state to annually spend US$10 million to construct temporary bleachers and support structures. To save money, the state developed its idea for a permanent stadium and hired seminal modern architect Oscar Niemeyer to develop and design their concept as a complex capable of hosting audiences of 200,000 for concerts. But the real social value is how Niemeyer developed the site and the stadium structure supporting the bleachers into a primary school that serves 4,000 students each day. This article contains three sub-articles that each examine the effort to manage the construction of the Passarela do Samba and Niemeyer's plan to use the stadium complex as a model for other new schools in Rio. The first article [Rio's unique carnival stadium: A major step forward in PM, by P. C. Dinsmore] overviews the project and the effort involved in designing and constructing the complex. It also defines the eight barriers that the project team had to resolve and overcome, identifies the project stakeholders, and describes the project's social value and its outcome--completed on budget, to specification, and within four months, which was about ten days before the 1984 carnival. The second article [A revolutionary school building program: Making up for lost time, by J. O. Brizola] discusses the effort that was involved in realizing Rio's plan to construct 500 new grade and junior high schools by December 1993, an effort known as the CIEP School Program, which was both conceived and designed by Neimeyer. It explains how Neimeyer used his plan for the Passarela do Samba complex as his model for designing the new school campuses that would enable Rio to realize a major social initiative: To provide education, nutrition, and health care services to children living in the state's high-density and high-poverty communities. It describes the CIEP program's four major project management challenges. The third article [Managing project costs during rampant inflation: A major challenge for the school building program, by J. O. Brizola and P. C. Dinsmore] explains the project management methods used by the team that implemented the CIEP School Program, methods which enabled them to resolve the program's two critical project challenges: cost inflation and political uncertainty. It also outlines an approach for developing cost indices and a system for managing cost escalation indices.