Using unders to offset overs

Project managers often must make hard commitments to management or clients in the face of project uncertainties. One way to manage this uncertainty is to use unders in some areas to offset overs in other areas.The article reviews ten common problems in estimating effort, duration, and costs, and provides theoretical underpinning for a method which results in more realistic project commitments. When project managers require fixed commitments from their individual task managers, this almost ensures that there will never be any unders.Instead, project managers can learn to harvest unders and use them to offset overs. In addition, project contingency allowances can be established and managed over the duration of the project to cushion uncertainties.
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