Google Search

For Transforming the Way We Think about—and Identify—Information (Most Influential Projects: #17)


It has become part of the Silicon Valley lore. Inside a rented garage in Menlo Park, California, USA, two Stanford University students created what became the world's most prominent search engine. But don't call Google Search founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin forward-thinking. They actually just wanted to reverse-engineer the World Wide Web.

The entire web, Page theorized, was founded on the premise of citation. When he looked at a webpage, he wanted to know which pages—and how many—were linking back to it. Brin was drawn to the idea's complexity and scale, so the duo built a crawler that would count and qualify each of those incoming links. They called the project BackRub.

Existing search engines, such as AltaVista and Excite, returned results—many of them irrelevant—based on how often a keyword appeared on a page. Page and Brin took a different tack, developing an info-ranking algorithm, dubbed PageRank, that took into account not just what is linking to what, but also the importance of what's linking to what, by analyzing link counts at every rung in the citation ladder.

Not only was BackRub superior to its search predecessors, it was also self-scaling. As the web grew, so would the links for PageRank to analyze. With this in mind, Page and Brin renamed their search engine after googol, the term for the numeral 1 followed by 100 zeroes, and released the first version of Google on the Stanford website. They began improving their product immediately, adding full-text search and more pages to Google's index. They rode the wave of continuous development to their first round of funding, and in September 1998, Google Inc. launched to the public.

Two decades later, Google owns more than 90 percent of the internet search market. Others, such as Microsoft's Bing and the privacy-focused DuckDuckGo, have tried, but no viable competitor has emerged.

Dominance doesn't mean Google's project teams are resting on their laurels. They've launched significant algorithm updates—predictive searches, localization, web spam avoiders and even a precursor to semantic search—at a steady clip. Of course, the biggest sign of their influence may be the way web search itself is now described: “Google it.”



Google co-founders Larry Page, left, and Sergey Brin



Share of all internet searches conducted via Google platforms


Number of search queries processed by Google per day in 1998

3.5 billion

Number of search queries processed by Google per day in 2019


Number of improvements Google made to its search algorithm in 2018—an average of nearly 9 per day

Collective Concerns

Google tracks what the world is searching for, and when. Thanks to its open-source data, journalists, data geeks, epidemiologists, politicians, celebrities and narcissists alike can dive deep.


1. World Cup

2. Avicii

3. Mac Miller

4. Stan Lee

5. Black Panther ►


6. Meghan Markle

7. Anthony Bourdain

8. XXXTentacion

9. Stephen Hawking

10. Kate Spade


What words moved mainstream in 2018? Some of the top rising lingo, based on search interest:

Uwu: overwhelming feelings of happiness

Mukbang: a live broadcast in which a host eats a large amount of food while interacting with an audience

Ibf: internet boyfriend

Blockchain: a system in which a record of information is maintained in a linked peer-to-peer network

Rng: random number generator

Juuling: using an electronic cigarette or other vaping device



Related Content

  • PMI Sponsored Research

    Digitalization as a Game Changer in Project Stakeholder Management member content open

    By Kier, Christof | Huemann, Martina This research work aims to discuss contemporary project stakeholder engagement and examines how digitalization shapes and affects the field.

  • Project Management Journal

    Using Principal–Steward Contracting and Scenario Planning to Manage Megaprojects member content locked

    By Turner, J. Rodney Megaprojects are complex, but people use constructs inappropriate in complex situations for their management, particularly contractual arrangements.

  • Project Management Journal

    A Dynamic Capabilities Model of Innovation in Large Interfirm Projects member content locked

    By Steen, John | Ford, Jerad A. | Verreynne, Martie-Louise The time-bounded nature of large interfirm projects and technical interdependencies constrain innovation.

  • PM Network

    El futuro del aprendizaje member content open

    By Fister Gale, Sarah Más de mil millones de niños en al menos 185 países se vieron afectados por el cierre de escuelas relacionado con la pandemia mundial el año pasado.

  • PM Network

    Fintech en la mira member content open

    By Fister Gale, Sarah Las tasas de adopción de tecnología financiera entre los consumidores casi se han duplicado cada dos años desde 2015, y el ritmo solo se aceleró durante la pandemia.