Dynamic Sublimes, Changing Plans, and the Legacy of a Megaproject
The Case of the 1966 Soccer World Cup
Global sporting events such as the FIFA (Féderation Internationale de Football Association) World Cup have been described as megaprojects. The motives of decision makers for undertaking megaprojects are summarized by Flyvbjerg's (2012, 2014) "four sublimes," which lack a temporal dimension. We utilize a case study of the 1966 FIFA World Cup in England, applying the three levels of project management identified by Morris and Geraldi (2011), refined through Flyvbjerg's four sublimes, to analyze the shifting nature of stakeholders' motives. We evidence that Flyvbjerg's sublimes are dynamic in response to change during the project timeline, creating new insights into project development and opportunities for research into historic projects.