Expect the Unexpected: Project Managers Who Think They Know Exactly What's Going to Happen in the Course of Their Projects are in for a Surprise–or Two

One element common to nearly all projects is the concept of change. And managing such change is as important to a project's outcome as is planning the project's implementation. This article examines how a project manager's approach to managing change can affect a project's outcome. In doing so, it discusses the elements that can help project managers address the unforeseeable changes that will most likely occur on nearly every project, elements such as a strong social network and a clear view of the project's goals. It describes some of the ways that project managers address unexpected changes, including one way called the dynamic systems development method. It also looks at a pre-implementation model that Sprint Nextel uses predict and manage the difficulties that can result from project changes. It then overviews how one company--Netherlands-based technology integrator Avanade--practices change management and identifies what another company--home financier Freddie Mac (McLean, VA, USA)--learned from impleme
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