Comparison of the European Commission's project cycle management/logical framework approach with international PM standards and methodologies
PMBOK, IPMA's ICB, ISO 10,006, PRINCE2 and TenStep
The European Commission, the executive branch of the European Union, has developed a common methodology for designing, implementing and evaluating the tens of thousands of projects it finances every year in different areas: research and technology, economic and social development, environment, energy, transport, development aid, etc. This methodology is known as Project Cycle Management (PCM) for the complete life-cycle, and Logical Framework Approach (LFA) for the design, implementation and evaluation or individual programmes and projects.
In this paper, PCM and LFA are quickly reviewed and a comparison is made of the main techniques of PCM/ LFA with Project Management Institute's (PMI®) A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide), IPMA's ICB®, ISO 10.006, Prince2® of the UK, and private project management methodology Tenstep™. The comparison yields the conclusion that although PCM/ LFA is quite good at defining the life-cycle, individual programme and project design, procurement, monitoring, evaluation of indicators (metrics) and managing budgets, it lacks depth or coverage of various important areas of project management, such as human resource issues, quality aspects, monitoring of risks, managing or addressing problems/issues, or dealing with organisational aspects, such as Project management offices (PMOs), organizational procedures and others.
It is suggested that PCM/ LFA, which is compulsory in many EC-financed projects-be complemented with PMBOK processes, and that manuals and templates from other methodologies -such as the “de – facto” standard PMBOK and international methodology TenStep-be used during programme and project implementation and control. These PM standards and methodologies should be known and used both by public authorities, promoting and supervising programmes and projects with EU funds, and by contractors of EC projects, both of whom will need to use them if they are to optimize the resources and achieve maximum results of EU money.
Project Cycle Management (PCM), which includes the so-called Logical Framework Approach (LFA), is the chosen methodology for designing, executing and monitoring the progress of programmes and projects funded by the European Commission-and of many other international development institutions. This includes technical assistance to third countries as well as research and technology internal market development and other areas. The Logical Framework Approach (LFA) and its summary diagram, the Logical Framework Matrix (LFM) is also widely used by public sector agencies across Europe to define programmes and projects with socio-economic variables, and in which inputs, outputs, results and impacts are not as clear-cut as for example designing a car or developing a software program. The LFM was originally developed and used in the mid-60's by the US Agency for International Development (USAID), and then spread to all international development agencies and finally to public sector bodies, as a useful tool to design, monitor and summarize in a clear format (a matrix) key project variables.
Project Cycle Management (PCM) defines the logic, phases, requirements and documents needed for programme and project cycle, while the Logical Framework Approach (LFA) consists of a series of methods and techniques for reviewing the needs of stakeholders, defining objectives, analyzing options, deciding on a specific option, and finally defining the indicators (metrics), means of verification and assumptions and risks for different levels of the project: general and specific objectives, results and activities. All project information is then summarized in a Logical Framework Matrix (LFM), which can have as attachments the detailed schedule, budget and organization for the project.
The LFM by itself is a widely used tool for planning and monitoring public sector projects, but has its shortcomings, as it barely defines the methods for planning and managing the programmes or projects, its processes, inputs and outputs (except those which are deliverables), and lacks many of the tools and techniques defined in the Project Management Institute's (PMI®) A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide), or the International Project Management Association's (IPMA) International Competence Baseline (ICB®) model, the UK Government's PRINCE2® methodology, or private methodologies, such as TenStep™ Project Management Process, a popular project management process present in fifteen countries through a network of Partner firms and licenses.
The EU's Programmes and Projects Universe
The European Union, mostly through its executive branch, the European Commission, funds thousands of programmes and projects every year from its roughly 100 billion/year EUR budget, whether in Member States of the EU, in Candidate countries to future EU accession or in third countries (i.e. development aid). The programmes and projects can be broadly classified as follows:
- 1) Programmes and projects funded under the Structural and Cohesion Funds: These financial schemes are allocated to the so-called Objectives 1, 2 and 3 EU regions, i.e. those with low Gross Domestic Product (GDP) compared to the EU average, or those with structural problems -high unemployment, large obsolete industries, far-away or isolated territories, etc. These programmes and projects are managed by the Member States themselves, although at programming, approval and audit level, the EC is involved indirectly.
- 2) Programmes and projects funded under the EC External Actions (EuropeAid): This is the approximately 10 billion EUR that the EC spends in non-reimbursable development aid to Candidate and third countries, under programmes named as: Phare, ISPA and SAPARD (for Candidate countries, but also for new candidate country Turkey and Croatia, and some other hopeful countries of the Balkans), MEDA (Mediterranean and Middle East), ALA (Asia and Latin America), EDF (European Development Fund, targeted to the 80-odd countries of Africa, the Caribbean and Pacific -ACP), CARDs and EAR (the Balkan countries), TACIS (Russia and former Soviet Union countries), and a host of horizontal and inter-regional programmes.
- 3) Programmes and projects under the Research and Technological Development Framework Programme (now finishing the VIth programme and designing the VIIth): This multi-billion EUR programme contracts thousands of projects every year in many research, development and innovation fields, which are usually managed by consortia of universities, research and technology centres, private firms and other technological agents.
- 4) Programmes and projects in a host of programmes to improve the EU Internal market: i.e. the workings and sectors of EU countries and its policies: promoting the movement of workers among EU countries, standardizing technical and trade standards, improving the environment, promote equality, etc. These programmes (400 of the in the last count) usually have descriptive acronyms – such as LIFE, YOUTH, LEONARDO, ALLURE, SAVE, MEDIA, etc.), and are usually managed by heterogeneous consortia of public and private institutions, firms and NGOs.
- 5) Small projects and studies which fall under the umbrella category of “Pilot projects and innovative actions”: These projects are launched under the initiative of the European Commission or some other EU body, be it because they would like to test a concept, analyze a market, sector or idea, or simply because the EC has excess funds (coming out of reserves or unspent budgets), and would like to use them to promote new concepts and ideas, before launching larger programmes or projects of the other areas mentioned.
With this plethora of programmes and projects, which are the methodologies and standards used by the EC institutions and their contractors for promoting, designing, selecting, planning, managing, controlling and closing them?
EC Project Cycle Management and the Logical Framework Approach
As could be expected in such a large institution -and similar to the US Federal Government -the standards and methodologies for programme and project cycle and individual project management varies somewhat among the different departments within the largest body of the EU -the European Commission (EC). The “departments” of the EC -the Directorates General or DGs – specify the forms and detailed procedures for programme and project management. Nevertheless, there is a certain number of regulations and methodologies which are “more or less” universally known and applied across the different DGs. The overarching regulation of all contracts managed by third parties (most programmes and virtually all projects are contracted out) is the “General Conditions of Contracts financed by the Commission of the European Communities”. This regulation provides guidelines for all contractual and procedural regulations of the tendering, supervisory and financial issues-sort of a similar guidance as the Federal Acquisition Regulations (FARs) of the US Government.
Regarding the planning, design, financing, implementing and controlling of programmes and projects, the general guidelines are those of the “Project Cycle Management” Manual (version 2004 is the latest to date). Project Cycle Management (PCM) is the compulsory methodology for External Assistance (Aid), but is also highly recommended for programmes and projects funded both by the Structural funds (the regional and social funds which are aimed at reducing the differences among regions) and by the EU “Internal market” programmes and pilot projects. Exhibit 1 illustrates the five Phases and the Key Documents of a programme or project of External Assistance financed by the EC.
Exhibit 1: EU's Project Cycle Management and Key Documents as applied to External Projects
Project Cycle Management (or PCM as it commonly referred) is, as it name implies, a cycle with five phases (in some versions six if a “Financing” phase is added): Programming, Identification, Formulation, Implementation and Evaluation. These phases are generally consecutive and can be applied both at programme level (more usual), or at individual project level (for larger projects). Each Phase has a “phase-gate”-a decision to proceed by an EC official, a public servant or a Committee-and a series of Key Documents associated to it-such as the Pre-feasibility analysis and Project Identification Sheet (a sort o Charter) for the Formulation Phase. With small variations, mostly in the documentation and mechanisms for phase-gate approval, PCM is also used in many other types of programmes and projects within the EC, although some DGs will add some “flavour” to their programming and implementation of projects-and more procedures, forms and regulations.
Project Cycle Management is the equivalent of life-cycle management in “private sector” project management, but what about programme and project management itself? The EC has defined and uses a series of tools and techniques called the Logical Framework Approach (LFA), which technically are supposed to cover all areas of individual programme and project definition, implementation and monitoring. Yet, as we will see later, PCM/LFA leaves important gaps in various Knowledge Areas of the PMBOK® Guide (in this paper we will refer to the 3rd Edition 2004, for comparison of processes with the PCM/LFA), or of other standards, such as IPMA's ICB or ISO 10,006, or other methodologies, such as Prince2 of the UK Government, or TenStep of the US company of the same name.
Project Cycle Management (PCM) and the Logical Framework Approach (LFA) define and recommend the use of various techniques, of which the most important are: Stakeholders Analysis, Problem Analysis, Analysis of Objectives and Analysis of Strategies (also called Options). These techniques are the key ones for the Formulation Phase of programmes and projects, while the Logical Framework Matrix (LFM) is the summary diagram for the Planning, Implementation (execution) and Evaluation Phases, usually complemented with a Schedule (Gantt chart or other format), a project Organizational chart and the Budget. The following are brief descriptions of the key techniques of PCM/ LFA (the next section compares these plus others with the processes, elements, clauses or steps of the PMBOK® Guide, IPMA's ICB, ISO 10.006, Prince2 and TenStep):
Stakeholders Analysis: identifies and characterizes the main stakeholders and assesses their roles, capacities, willingness to contribute to the project, including economically, if co-financing for the project is necessary according to the programme regulations;
Problem Analysis: identifies the main problems, constraints and opportunities, including the cause and effect relationship among them;
Analysis of Objectives: develops solutions (for addressing the identified problems by picturing the image of the improved situation in the future and setting specific objectives, deliverables and results (products) for the project; Analysis of Strategies (options): identifies the different strategies or options to achieve the solutions, selecting the most appropriate one (s); also the main assumptions necessary for this strategy/option to succeed are stated, and directly or indirectly the main risks and alternative scenarios if the assumptions made do not hold. Logical Framework Matrix: a matrix of four by four summarizing General and Specific Objectives (usually called purpose), Results, key Activities, Indicators, Means of Verification and Assumptions at four levels of the project or programme.
Exhibit 2 shows a Logical Matrix with a description or key question in each box of the Matrix.
Exhibit 2: Logical Framework Matrix of a EU project
The LFA techniques and the Logical Framework Matrix use a number of standard tools: mind mapping, stakeholder workshops, problem trees, fish-bone analysis, scenario analysis, parametric and financial modelling, etc., most of them included also as Tools & Techniques in PMBOK® Guide hin the different PM processes.
In the LFA, which is also the preferred methodology of most international organizations-such as the United Nations agencies, the World Bank, other Development Banks, International Aid agencies and Foundations, etc.-the basic techniques are complemented with others, such as Resource Analysis, Economic and Financial Analysis (Eco-Fin, also widely used in the EC), etc. To these techniques, the extensive regulations and procedures on procurement and contracting have to be added, as they are also part of the Procurement Area of Project Management.
While the LFA is a useful tool for formulation and planning, it leaves great gaps in various areas and processes of project management, notably in the PM Areas of Knowledge of Human resources, Risk, Quality and Integration Management. In the next section we will try to “match” the tools and techniques of the Logical Framework Approach and the Matrix with PMBOK® Guide th the International Project Management Association's (IPMA) International Competency Baseline (ICB), with ISO 10,006 Standard on Quality in Projects, with Prince2 of the UK Government and with private methodology TenStep, originally started in the US.
PCM/LFA Techniques compared to PMBOK® Guide IPMA's ICB, ISO 10,006, Prince2 and TenStep
It is a difficult mission to try to compare standards of project management, such as PMI's, IPMA's, ISO 10,006-the short Standard from the ISO family dealing with projects-, Prince2 used in the UK and other Commonwealth countries, and private sector methodologies such as TenStep. Their origins, breakdown of areas, vocabulary, sections, clauses, classification of tools and techniques and other aspects are widely different. Various attempts have been made to compare and even merge the standards, notably between PMBOK® Guide and IPMA's ICB. Likewise, comparisons with the Australian, Japanese, and the UK's (Prince2) government-backed methodologies and others have been extensively dealt with in past Congresses of project management, both of PMI's and IPMA's. But no serious comparison between the techniques of the EC's Project Cycle Management and Logical Framework Approach (referred jointly as PCM/LFA) with the international standards and some well-known methodologies project management.
In this section, we attempt to compare the EC standard with the others, by taking each of the key Techniques of PCM/LFA and matching them, if possible, with PMBOK® Guide processes, ICB's PM Elements, ISO's clauses and sub-clauses, Prince2's processes and TenStep's “Steps”. A much more detailed comparison, in a comprehensive series of charts, has been developed by the author, and is available if the reader is interested at the websites www.tenstep.com and www.corpsolutions.net .
1) Stakeholders Analysis: PMBOK® Guide 3rd Edition deals with stakeholders in sections 1.6 Project Context and 2.4 Project Stakeholders, albeit not mentioning specifically a specific technique for their analysis. ICB deals with this in PM Content Element 5. Stakeholders, but again no technique is mentioned. Neither ISO 10.006 nor Prince2 specifically deal with stakeholders, while TenStep deals with them both in Step 1.0. Define the Work and in sister methodology PortfolioStep.
2) Analysis of Objectives: Project objectives are dealt by PMBOK® Guide in both section 2.1 The Project Life-cycle and sections 5.1 and 5.2 Scope Planning and Scope Definition. ICB considers them in PM Content Element 8. Objectives and Strategies, while ISO 10.006 deals only tangentially with Objectives as part of Sub-clause 7.2 Scope related Processes. Prince2 deals with them in the PL section of the methodology, in section PL2. Defining and Analyzing Products. In TenStep the project objectives are dealt with in sister methodologies Life-cycleStep and PortolioStep. Moreover, Step 1. Define the Work within the TenStep PM methodology, also redefines or fine-tunes project objectives and products, even if previously defined within the Life-cycle.
3) Analysis of Problems: “problems” as defined in the LFA are not issues or problems of project management, but rather the environmental or target group problems, which the project tries to address. Therefore as mentioned above in Analysis of Objectives, the LFA Problems are part of either the Life-cycle or the Scope processes in all standards and methodologies.
4) Analysis of Alternatives/options: Analysis of Alternatives and Options again is part of 2.4 Life-cycle and/or 1.6 Project context in PMBOK® Guide, in ICB it is PM Element PL 8. Objectives and Strategies. The Alternatives/Options are not dealt with specifically in ISO10.006 nor in Prince2, and are included within TenStep in PortfolioStep, within the project selection process.
5) Analysis of Risks: All methodologies deal with Risk analysis: PMBOK® Guide has a whole Knowledge Area in section 11, for ICB this is PM content Element 18. Risk and Chances. In ISO 10.006 it is covered in sub-clause 7.7 Risk-related processes; in Prince2 it is in PL 6 Analyzing risks; while for TenStep it is Step 7. Manage Risk.
6) Project Schedule: The project schedule is obviously the heart of project management and is covered by all standards and methodologies: in PMBOK® Guide it is within the Knowledge Area of Time management, and the final schedule is defined in section 6.5 Schedule development. In ICB it is PM Content Element 14 Project Schedules; in ISO 10.006 it is within sub-clause 7.4 Time-related processes, specifically in 7.4.4 Schedule development. In Prince2 it is PL 5 Scheduling, while in TenStep it is within Step 2. Build the Workplan and Budget.
7) Project Organization: Likewise all standards and methodologies deal with the project team organization, and most in much more detail than the LFA. PMBOK® Guide has a whole Area dealing with Human Resource management, and 9.1 Human resource planning covers not only the organization, but also responsibilities (RAM) and selection modes for staff. In ICB organization is PM Element 22 Project Organization, while ISO 10,006 deals with it within sub-clause 6.2 Personnel-related Processes, specifically in 6.2.2 Defining a Project Organizational Structure. Prince2 treats the organization as processes SU2 and SU3 Designing and Appointing a Project Team, within the family of processes SU-Starting Up a Project. TenStep deals with it within in Step 1. Define the Work, but not in detail, although by end of Step 2. Define the Workplan and Budget, it specifically says the team has to be assigned and an organizational team structure setup.
8) Project Fiche/Terms of Reference: Many standards and methodologies consider that there has to be a first summary document which describes the project in general (as is the Project Fiche in PCM), while later a more extensive one is produced with the detailed scope and other areas. PMBOK® Guide calls it Charter, and deals with it within process 5.1 Initiation, while the Statement of Scope is defined within process 5.3 Scope Definition. ICB calls the two documents Project Content and Project Scope, and both are part of PM Element 13. ISO 10.006 considers these documents with sub-clause 7.3 Scope-related processes, and calls them Concept and Scope. Prince2 calls them Project Initiation Document (PID), and deals with it within the Initiating a Project IP process IP6-Assembling the Project Initiation Document, while the Project Brief is within process SU4-Preparing a project Brief. In TenStep, the first document is the Project Definition within Step 1. Define the Work, while the second is also called the Scope Statement and is within Step 5. Manage Scope.
9) Project Procurement procedures: Again many standards and methodologies cover the aspects of procurement, purchasing and subcontracting in programmes and projects, although not as extensively as does the public sector (and the EC is no different in this respect). PMBOK® Guide has a whole Area 12. Procurement Management, while for ICB it is PM Element 27 Procurement/Contracts. For ISO 10.006, it is sub-clause 7.8 Purchasing-related processes, while Prince2 does not cover this area specifically. TenStep deals with procurement extensively in the “additional” Step (i.e. non-core, to be used only in larger projects) 24.0 Procurement/purchasing/contracts.
10) Project Monitoring and Evaluation: Both of these techniques are covered in the Controlling process group of PMBOK® Guide. Yet PMBOK® Guide does not differentiate, as PCM does, the on-going Monitoring from the Evaluation as defined by the EC-an external assessment at any given point in time of operational and impact indicators, plus other issues such as relevance, sustainability, etc. ICB covers these two variables in PM General Element (not PM Element) 27 Appraise/Evaluate, while ISO 10.006 covers them only very marginally in sub-clause 8.3 Continual Improvement, although again does not differentiate between the continual Monitoring and the static/snapshot Evaluation. Prince2 covers monitoring in process IP4 Setting up Project Controls, and Evaluation in process CP3 Project Evaluation Review. TenStep deals with the continuous Monitoring in various Steps: Step 3.0 Manage Schedule and Budget,
5.0 Manage Scope; 9.0 Manage Quality and 10.0 Manage Metrics, but the real concept of Evaluation is dealt with in LifeCycleStep, within the Evaluation Stage of projects after their Closing and Lessons learnt sections.
11) Economic and Financial Analysis (Eco-Fin): The various techniques of Financial and Economic Analysis are used for Project Justification and Feasibility Plans, etc. PMBOK® Guide again mentions Feasibility and project justification in 2.1 The Project Life-cycle; and ICB has PM content Elements 3. Project Portfolios/Programs and 5. Project Context, but nothing is said about the economic justification. ISO 10.006 does not deal at all with Project justification and economic analysis, while Prince2 does talks about the Business Case as a pre-requisite for project approval, and is part of process SU4-Preparing a Project Brief. TenStep deals with economic justification within PortfolioStep, as one of the key Phases of analysing projects prior to their Selection.
12) Logical Framework Matrix's Specific Objectives, Results and Activities/Inputs: With these variables we cover the “vertical factors” of the LFA (Objectives are dealt in two rows, one for general objectives and one for project objectives. We already covered within point 2) Analysis of Objectives how the standards and methodologies cover Objectives and Results (products). Regarding Activities/Inputs, the last row of the LFM, all standards and methodologies cover extensively Activities and Inputs (Resources) as a core area of Project management. PMBOK® Guide covers Activities in various processes of Knowledge Area 6. Time Management, including resources in 6.3 Activity Resource Estimating. ICB covers them in PM content Element 14. Time schedules and 15. Resources. ISO 10.006 covers activities within sub-clause 7.3 Scope-related processes, as 7.3.4 Definition of Activities, while resources are not specifically mentioned. Prince2 covers activities in PL3-Defining Activities and Dependencies, and resources in PL4-Estimating, which includes resources and costs. TenStep treats activities and resources in Step 2. Defining the Workplan and Budget.
13) Logical Framework Matrix's Indicators, Means of Verification and Assumptions: All standards and methodologies deal with the indicators or metrics in one or another form. PMBOK® Guide considers metrics within the Area Quality Control, and also in some other processes with the Controlling process groups: 5.3 Scope control; 7.3 Cost control, etc. ICB covers them in PM Content Elements 9-Success, Failure and 19-Performance, Satisfaction. ISO 10.006 covers indicators and performance in sub-clause 8.2 Measurement and analysis. Prince2 covers them only partially in process IP4-Setting up Project Controls, while TenStep has a full Step
10.0 Manage Metrics, which cover indicators and metrics. All standards and methodologies cover Assumptions within the management of risk, which has been already been covered in point 5) Analysis of Risks of this section.
Gaps of PCM/LFA and usefulness of PMBOK® Guide and other Standards/Methodologies in EC projects
As seen in the section above, there are a series of Areas/processes not adequately covered by PCM and LFA: for example close to nothing (except an organizational chart for project) is mentioned on the management of Human Resources Area, nothing specifically on Quality, while Risk is only covered in the Analysis/planning phase but not in the Executing/Controlling phases. Also, little is mentioned of addressing problems or issues during implementation, except that the project Logical Matrix might have to be redone.
Likewise, PMC/LA also covers time management/scheduling with only a simple technique – to just develop a schedule or Gantt-there is no networking diagram, critical path, etc., which will be necessary in larger projects. Moreover, little is mentioned of the organizational and institutional aspects of the project sponsor, host or executing organization, or of project management offices or similar structures which can be useful for multi-project organizations -as the EC is itself both in Brussels and in various of the larger Delegations in various countries.
Therefore, although a useful and proven methodology, PCM and LFA have definitive shortcomings, and they surely have been experienced by any project manager landing from the private sector into an EU-funded project, aside from the usual political interference and bureaucracy inherent to publicly-funded projects. Yet, the shortcomings of the “required” EC methodology can be overcome by a trained (and certified) project manager of a EC-funded project, if additional to mastering and applying PCM/LFA, the PMBOK® Guide concepts and standards are applied. If possible to supplement PCM and LFA in all project phases of a EC-funded project, a detailed methodology for defining templates and details of implementation will also be used-such as TenStep, which is fully compliant with both PMBOK® Guide and ISO 10.006.
A comparison-matching of the EC methodology PCM/LFA with international standards PMBOK® Guide, IPMA's ICB, ISO 10,006 and methodologies Prince2 and TenStep, shows that although PCM/LFA is good in defining and managing the life-cycle aspects of programmes and projects, project design, procurement, monitoring and evaluation, defining indicators (metrics) and managing budgets, it lacks depth or coverage of various important areas of project management. Among the gaps are: management of human resources and project teams, quality management, monitoring of risks, complex scheduling, managing or addressing problems/issues, organisational aspects, project management offices, procedures for adequate project approval and control and various others areas.
It is therefore suggested that the PCM/LFA, which is frequently compulsory in EC-financed projects, be complemented with the standards of PMBOK® Guide and with a detailed project management methodology. This should be done by both the public authorities promoting and supervising projects (EC or country authorities who work with EU funds), and by the contractors of EU projects. Only by complementing t the PCM and LFA with detailed processes, templates and procedures for project planning, execution and control from one of the international standards and methodologies, can they optimize resources and achieve maximum results with programmes and projects funded by the EC budget, which helps both EU members and over 180 countries around the world.
European Commission (2004), A Guide to Project Cycle Management (PCM), Retrieved from http://europa.eu.int/comm/europeaid/procedures.htm on March 10, 2006.
European Commission (2006), Guide to Contract procedures of the EC External Actions, Retrieved from http://europa.eu.int/comm/europeaid/procedures.htm on March 10, 2006.
European Commission (2000), The New Programming Period 2000-06: methodological working papers, Working paper 3: Indicators for Monitoring and Evaluation: An indicative Methodology, Retrieved from http://europa.eu.int/comm/regional_policy.htm on March 10, 2006.
International Project Management Association (IPMA), International Competence Baseline (ICB), P.O. Box 1167, 3860, BD Nijkerk, The Netherlands
Project Management Institute (2004), A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide), 3rd Edition, Newton Square, Pennsylvania USA: Project Management Institute
TenStep Inc. (2005), Comparison of the TenStep Process to PRINCE 2®, section 0.0.8.3; and Comparison of the TenStep Process to ISO 10,006, section 0.0.8.6, both Retrieved from http://www.tenstep.com on March 10, 2006.
© 2006, Julio Fuster
Originally published as a part of 2006 PMI Global Congress Proceedings – Madrid, Spain