Project Management Institute

Management, leadership, and delegation

We are all familiar with the definition of leadership as the ability to get things done through other people. We probably all believe, in addition, that leadership means inspiring people to develop new skills, attitudes, and knowledge. But what specific steps, day by day, even minute by minute, does a skillful manager take in order to emerge as an effective leader? The guidelines that follow are designed to show the detailed building blocks of leadership. They are presented in list form for ease of reference. New or prospective managers can find in these lists a place to start building on their personal strengths. On the other hand, leadership is so inclusive a process that even experienced, highly successful managers are very unlikely to read these guidelines without finding new goals for self-development. If there is one universal truth about leadership, it is that we all need to improve at it.

Management of People

1. Ask questions to win cooperation. “You have two ears and one mouth — use the ears twice as much.”

2. To clear up troubles — “Breathe through your nose, then you’ll keep your mouth shut.”

3. Confidence — If you want others to bet on you, act as if you were betting on yourself.

4. Earnestness — The quickest way to embalm your future is to lose your earnestness.

5. Overcome opposition — Be all business — but make friendliness a big part of your business.

6. Mobilize ability — Recognize good, thousands have ceased to try to do their best because they have been told only of their worst.

7. Win appreciation — Harsh criticism. A pat on the back often eliminates the need for a kick in the pants.

8. Cultivate loyalty — The most priceless gift you can give anyone is encouragement.

9. Generate harmony — Know your people — if you want to learn how interesting people are, just get acquainted with them.

The Boss The Leader
1. Drives his men. Coaches his men.
2. Counts on authority. Gets their good will.
3. Keeps them guessing, fearful. Arouses their enthusiasm.
4. Talks about “I.” Makes it “We.”
5. Says, “Get here on time.” Gets there ahead of time.
6. Finds blame for breakdown Fixes the breakdown.
7. Knows how it is done. Shows how it is done.
8. Makes work a drudgery. Makes work a game.
9. Says, “Go.” Says, “Let's go.”

Management is the science or art of handling human beings.

Qualities of Leadership

1. Intelligence — We may define as any inherent ability to think clearly.

2. Integrity — Here is a moral quality which can develop to the nth degree.

3. Forcefulness — A good supervisor tells the subordinate exactly what he wants him to do.

4. Fairness — As a quality of leadership, includes impartiality.

5. Loyalty — Time for loyalty is when company name is being downed.

6. Kindness — Deal with kindness to subordinates.

7. Knowledge of work — Work at your work and don't let your work work you.

8. Health — Governs your attitude and controls your abilities.

Techniques of Leadership

1. The manager must provide certain kinds of knowledge for the subordinate.

2. Tell a subordinate what the company policies and rules are.

3. Leader must maintain an atmosphere of approval at work.

4. Leader is to maintain consistent discipline.

5. Leader to provide opportunities for growth.

6. Leader to secure subordinates’ participation.

7. Leader lets subordinate know of rights of appeal.

The Role of the Manager — Cost

Manager — “The fingertips of management” because the manager is closest to the point of cost generation. He is in the best position to exercise direct cost control.

Manager Importance of Accurate Information — Don't “fudge” reports, such falsification defeats the purpose of the cost report. The manager must have complete and accurate information about costs, in a form which is meaningful to him, on items he can really control.

Delegation — A Responsibility

Delegation — Is an extremely vital technique for the leader to cultivate. Misused, looked on as an escape hatch through which the leader can lessen responsibility. It's bound to kick back.

But delegation used as a means of better meeting your responsibilities can mean your salvation.

There's a single basic fact that makes delegation a necessity. It is that your responsibility in almost all cases is greater than your personal capacity to carry it out.

Delegation Don'ts

1. Lack of qualified subordinates.

2. The hot potato — Don't make the mistake of passing along a problem to a subordinate which you yourself feel unable to handle.

3. The Power of Discipline — Discipline is frequently the backbone, the ultimate act of leadership. Handing the power of discipline to a subordinate is liable to prove more of a problem than a solution.

When you do delegate a degree of management control over others in the group, you can avoid conflict by:

1. Spelling out the exact nature of the responsibility you are delegating.

2. Defining clearly and publicly the limits of the authority you delegate.

3. Taking care of any complaints about overstepping boundaries promptly.

4. Making it clear to the subordinates involved to what extent they’re to be led by your representative.

Delegation As a Developer of People

Greater efficiency is only one of the possible benefits of delegation. There are four other important possibilities:

1. You develop subordinates’ sense of responsibility.

2. You get them used to the “feel” of leadership.

3. You enlarge their general understanding.

4. You increase their job specification and interest in their job.

How to Keep Control

It has been stated before, when you delegate responsibilities you don't get rid of them.

1. Tell subordinates the nature of the job to be done.

2. Check the finished job.

3. Control by follow-up spot checking.

4. Progress reports.

Learning How to Delegate

1. Measure of management performance.

2. Don't always delegate only the jobs you do not want to do yourself.

3. Don't be a “do-it-yourself” supervisor just to prove you know it.

4. Learn that others can do a job, sometimes better than you.

5. Learn not to be the timid soul.

6. Weigh the risk of delegation.

7. Do not use delegation for passing the buck.

8. Teach the subordinate to understand the task.

9. In checking be careful not to have your subordinate lose confidence.

10. Encourage your subordinates to report voluntarily on his own activities.

Organizing Your Job in Management

Lack of Time: Problem or Symptom

1. Key to executive efficiency is organization of work, subordinates assignments, and future planning.

2. Delegation problems include poor conference techniques, faulty communications, and improper reading habits.

3. Organize yourself for big problems and delegate little ones.

4. Establish priorities and adhere to them.

Where Does the Time Go?

1. Audit how you spend your time.

2. Get a good administrative assistant.

3. Collect data for an orderly analysis.

The Job in Perspective

1. Look at situations from different angles.

2. Review what your job does.

3. How much thinking time should you devote to future contingencies?

Identifying the Main Problem Areas

1. Ask where, why, what, and how?

2. Developing people.

3. Never undertake what you can delegate.

4. Are you getting the most out of control reports?

5. Good planning means the careful blending of horse-sense and imagination.

6. Follow planning by a strong dash of action-mindedness.

Time Rollers: Worries and Tensions

1. Tensions kill efficiency.

2. Too much tension wastes time because it disrupts the train of thought, traps you into a preoccupation of matter not worthy of your attention.

3. Inability to trust subordinates.

4. Keep emotions under control.

Delegation: A Basic Executive Problem

1. Delegate to the lowest practicable level.

2. The ability to delegate is a basic important requisite of a good executive.

3. Communication.

4. Delegation is training.

5. The inability or unwillingness to delegate is an emotional problem and not a rational one.

6. Lack of confidence in the ability of others to do the job.

7. A reluctance to admit — even to oneself — that someone else knows more.

8. Fear of not getting credit.

Effective Business Conferences

1. Productive Conferences — Organizing, planning, coordinating, and directing.

2. Conference — A joint consideration of a common problem.

3. Objectives — Plan of action, analyzing data, understanding policy, creative thinking, and periodic review.

4. Pave the way before a conference.

5. The Conference Leader — An analytical mind, a quick mind, a sense of tact, a sense of humor, a sense of timing, and an open mind.

6. Participants — Qualified to have an opinion.

7. Ground Rules — Stated in advance.

8. Constructive discussion.

9. Minutes — A must.

Guides to Better Communication

1. Key factor in human relations.

2. Identification of the problem.

3. Listening.

4. Don't do too much of the talking yourself.

Improving Speed and Comprehension in Reading

1. Reading Habits — Continue to read.

2. Central thought.

3. Investigate your personal reading.

Practical Steps Toward Self-Organization

1. Sum up action steps.

2. Make a detailed analysis.

3. Review basic objectives.

4. Take a frank look at tensions.

5. Know thyself.

6. Recap problem areas.

7. Know specific immediate steps to take.

8. Plan long-range action goals.

9. Self-development points.

This material has been reproduced with the permission of the copyright owner. Unauthorized reproduction of this material is strictly prohibited. For permission to reproduce this material, please contact PMI.



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