Business analytics for PPPM benefits realization
Infographics are 30 to 40 times more likely to be viewed and shared versus text. Retrieved from www.easel.ly
Program management does not end when a project is completed. The program manager's responsibilities continue until all projects are complete and the program is closed, which requires the need to be on top of completed work packages, in-flight work packages, and planned work packages. Project Management Institute (PMI) provides a set of standards to define the relationship between Portfolio, Program, and Project Management (PPPM) and their relationship in overall corporate business change. Loosely translated, this means a program is a linking of complex and often abstract ideas into a concrete observable and measurable series of work outcomes. In addition to reporting statistics on work outcomes, the program manager adds value to the data by using business analytics with the information and being able to provide quantitative reports of the results versus the anticipated benefits and the alignment with the corporate strategy. The challenge to the program manager is to condense this linking into an understandable plan of action with an observable means of communicating the true benefits returned to the business. Enter Infographics, a tool used to combine the output of the business analytics with the ability to report the benefits realized by the entire program.
Infographics, Business Analytics, and Program Management
A person could, and probably should, write a book on the relationship between Infographics, Business Analytics, and Benefit Realization because it is a very involved complex relation that evolves throughout the program life cycle. For the purpose of this paper, the term infographics will be used as a tool to report the status of benefits to management as a story that combines graphics with text to provide a context for the data being presented. The term Business Analytics will be used to represent the thinking of the data and how it relates to the expected results, or in other words, the plot of the story, and finally the term Program Management will be used in alignment with PMI's The Standard for Program Management — Second Edition The PMI standard refers to a program as: “A group of related projects, subprograms and program activities that are managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits not available from managing them individually.” The PMI Lexicon of Project Management Terms further defines program management as: “The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to a program to meet the program requirements and to obtain benefits and control not available by managing projects individually.”
The 2011 Financial Accounting Foundation Annual Report is Now Available
NORWALK, Conn., Apr 16, 2012 (BUSINESS WIRE) -- The 2011 Financial Accounting Foundation (FAF) Annual Report is now available online at www.accountingfoundation.org.
The 2011 annual report utilizes “info-graphics” to illustrate the activities and accomplishments of the FAF and its standard-setting boards—the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and the Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB). This approach is designed to give even the most time-pressed readers a comprehensive overview of the year's highlights.
Exhibit 1 – Annual Report Announcement
(Press Release from 2011 Financial Accounting Foundation (FAF) Annual Report.)
These definitions lead us to looking at Infographics as a tool to present the result of Business Analytic Tools and Techniques in the application of obtaining and monitoring the benefits of a program; in other words, using graphics with minimal supporting text to present the benefits realization of a program.
A Program Infographic
An information graphic, or an infographic, is a visual narration of information, detail, or knowledge. Infographics are outstanding for bringing life to content that would otherwise be dry, uninteresting, or unshareable. Given their visual advantages, infographics have become an effective means of continuing the story of the program to actual realization of benefits. Infographics are useful when large amounts of information need to be explained in less time and a context for the information needs to be established to assimilate where it applies to a program life cycle. Infographics as a tool is growing exponentially and being used in many different areas in business and has become an accepted means of conveying information. A report by Accenture states 72% growth in 2012 on business analytics and infographics in American business. Additionally, Exhibit 1 illustrates a press release by the Financial Accounting Foundation, announcing that their annual report uses infographics as a means of giving a comprehensive overview of the year's highlights.
A Program Infographic could be considered a means of presenting a scorecard of the Program Results. Both the scorecard and the Infographic take metrics display as a means of visually representing results. The difference in this paper is that the infographic is a one-time artifact directly associated with the Program Initiative, whereas a scoreboard is traditionally the overall performance of the business against specific key performance indicators (KPIs) with a strategic objective. The scorecard is a tool of overall company performance management methodology and encompasses a much broader view than a Program Infographic. This paper will concentrate on a Program Infographic as a tool to report the benefits of the work packages defined in the Program Roadmap and not the overall corporate scorecard metrics.
The concept of using a Program Infographic to present the PPPM aspect of reporting benefits is rooted in the concept that the program has already been represented in defined components and has probably already had its story told. In the Program Planning Stages, the work packages should be defined to provide context for the benefits and the benefits fit into the overall flow of the entire Program effort. The Program Infographic is the frame, or the structure of telling the story. The Section titled “The Infographic Structure” will present the components of the infographic and how it frames the benefits within the context of the entire Program initiative.
Because infographics communicate complex data visually, the program manager can use infographics to weave a compelling narrative about his or her work packages, costs, and benefits for information presentation. The program manager can communicate how the story unfolds through engrossing design, copy, and imagery.
Exhibit 2 – Stages of Bussiness Analytics
(Davis, D.L. (2012, October). Business Analytics for PPPM Benefits Realization. 2012 PMI Global Congress Proceedings, Vancouver British Columbia Canada)
Business Analytics describes a set of various tools and procedures to obtain data and translate it into Business Intelligence for making business decisions. Business Analytics, for the purpose of this paper, is determining the variance between expected business benefits from implementing Program Work Packages and the Actual benefits realized the business. The results of the analysis results in the details provided in the Program Infographic; it is the data behind the picture.
Business Analytics is an expansive concept and incorporates many aspects of the entire business DNA. It is not only a reporting of data, but looks at trends of using interactivity, and can even be used to predict future events. A recent Nucleas Research shows that companies gain a greater ROI as they broaden and deepen their use of Business Analytics. Nucleas Research goes further to define Four Stages of Business Analytics deployment that demonstrate the use of the concept from managing internal work to predictive analysis. Exhibit 2 – Stages of Business Analytics, shows these four stages and what they mean; the stages are examined in more detail in Herman Mehling's article, The More Pervasive the Use of Business Analytics, the Better the ROI. Most Program Management Organizations are just starting to enter the realm of using Analytics and Business Intelligence to evaluate the Program Benefits. Mehling defines the four stages in the following table:
|Automated Analytics||Lowest level of complexity, it uses standard reporting of the Program Management System. Usually can report variance of cost and time variance of actual versus planned.|
|Tactical Analysis||This is looking into the data in more detail and initiative behavior change to influence the results. Tactical Analysis includes not only the reporting of data, but also looks at what influences the results and what action can be taken to improve the results.|
|Strategic Analysis||Part of the program manager's role is to transform the company strategic vision into tactical projects. Strategic Analysis allows for the program manager to represent this relationship quantitatively. The application of strategic analysis can be very powerful in prioritizing work efforts across the organization.|
|Predictive Analysis||This is the most powerful of Business Analytics and involves taking data and intrinsic knowledge and predicting a future state. If the business can accurately predict future needs in their market, they have an excellent opportunity to maximize the Program Benefit. Using Predictive Analytics, the program manager can tell the story of the program and the realized benefits and forecast how they will play out in the future.|
Business Analytics is a powerful component of Business Intelligence and will continue to be a major factor in reporting benefits realization, as program management takes a greater position in the strategic DNA of a company. By using a Program Infographic to structure the context of the benefit and tell the story of why it is important, the benefits realizations can be quickly understood and used to help the business make more information decisions moving forward.
Following the The Standard for Program Management — Second Edition, the concept for the Program Infographic includes the concept that the program involves a defined charter and business case, the program manager will then create a Roadmap and a Program Plan, which will generate Project Charters, and the program manager will also create a Benefits Realization Plan and a Stakeholder Expectation Management Plan to monitor and control the program. There are many other artifacts involved in the Program Planning and execution, but this paper will interact only with this subset.
The discipline of Program Management is used to provide a structure and well-defined set of tools and techniques in which benefits will be defined and reported and agreement for how the business will track the results. This plan drives the structure of the Program Infographic and drives the story. Once the baseline is defined, the program manager can then use business analytics to calculate variance and determine if the deliverable is within tolerance. It can also be used as input to in-flight projects, or even not yet launched projects to ensure maximum return for the business.
One of the major differences between a program and the project is the transition to operations and the tracking of the projected project returns. A project ends when the customer accepts the product and resources are released, meanwhile a program may continue with new projects or staggered projects
Exhibit 3 – Start With the End in Mind
(Davis, D.L. (2012, October). Business Analytics for PPPM Benefits Realization. 2012 PMI Global Congress Proceedings, Vancouver British Columbia Canada)
How the benefits are defined is critical to the positioning of them in the Program Infographic and performing analytic techniques against the result. There is an art to having a crisp easy to track and report set of benefits that key stakeholders can easily understand to make informed Business Decision. Exhibit 3 – Start with the End in Mind, is a graphical summary of questions that should be asked as the expected benefits are being defined in the Program Planning Stage. The answer to these questions not only defines ownership, but also defines the source of the data for bringing into the analytical tools and eventually into the Program Infographic.
Another important aspect of being able to map benefits into the Program Infographic is to have the benefit itself well defined during the Program Planning Stage. Exhibit 4 – A Sample Benefit Definition Map, provides a sample of critical elements that need to be defined in determining the benefit. The data from this benefit map provide the framework for how the results will be graphically represented. The Benefit Definition requires certain components to be effective in the Program Infographic. The minimum dataset for the Benefit is detailed below:
1) Benefit Name
2) This provides the benefit an identity and a frame placeholder for the Program Infographic.
3) This helps differentiate the benefits from each other. It is a good practice to also give the Benefit a unique number.
Exhibit 4 – A Sample Benefit Definition Map
(Davis, D.L. (2012, October). Business Analytics for PPPM Benefits Realization. 2012 PMI Global Congress Proceedings, Vancouver British Columbia Canada)
4) Benefit Owner
5) The Benefit must have somebody responsible for returning the value to the company. If there is no defined owner, then there is no commitment to meeting the Program Benefits.
6) Without an owner, ambiguity exists and the benefits of a structured methodology are severely compromised.
8) What are the components in the overall benefit? Usually, a benefit is an aggregate of many different areas of improvement
9) Helps define data sources for the Business Analytics
11) Provides the expectation of the quantified benefit.
12) This does not always have to be a number. There are many times the benefit may be something other than an economic unit of measure. One of the components of the program may be to reduce toxic emissions and the target may be units per million of a substance in air samples.
13) Actual Results
14) These should line up with the targets
15) This information will then be reported in the Program Infographic.
The Program Infographic will only be as effective as the definition of expected benefits in the Program Planning Process. The Program Infographic must be a defined deliverable in the Program Plan with the owner, source, and contributors to the metric defined. Additionally, it needs to be explained in the Program Governance and Communication plans as a means of control and monitoring the Program Results. Finally, it must be a modifiable output of any defined change control. One of the challenges with the Program Infographic is that it defines completed work, work in progress, and future work. It is possible that completed work is not producing expected results, and analysis predicts these benefits may not be achieved at the expected rate until a subsequent project is completed. The Program Infographic must be able to capture and represent this information in order to provide a concise, understandable summary of the work effort.
It is important to remember that the Program Infographic is a communication tool that tells the story of how the program is performing against expectations. Therefore, when expectations are changed, or deliverables are changed, the Program Infographic must be able to communicate the new expectation.
The Standard for Program Management — Second Edition provides a model for Program Benefits Management. Exhibit 5 - Program Benefits Management outlines the relationship of the benefit process as it relates to the Program Life Cycle. This process provides flow of benefit identification through transition and thus discusses ownership, but the Standard doesn't precisely define what constitutes a benefit. For the purpose of this paper, a benefit is “A quantifiable and measurable improvement resulting from project implementation. “ Thus, a benefit is a tangible entity that can be presented graphically in the Program Infographic. A benefit is only realized once a project deliverable is completed and can be tracked in company official ledgers. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide) by Project Management Institute defines the concept of earned value and how it can be used to monitor the project progress. However, earned value does not contribute to the realization of Project/Program Benefits. Applying this concept to the Program Infographic, only completed projects can truly represent benefit realization; however, if the stakeholders that read the Program Infographic have an understanding of the concept of Earned Value, and the Organization has a level of maturity to accurately and consistently calculates earned value, it can be used as a dashboard graphic on the Program Infographic - but the program manager must ensure Earned Value is not reflected in any benefit calculations.
Exhibit 5 – Program Benefits Management
(Program Benefits Management Project Management Institute (2008). A Guide to the Program Management Body of Knowledge)
Gerald Bradley has written a wonderful comprehensive book called Benefit Realization Management: A Practical Guide to Achieving Benefits through Change, Second Edition, in which he explores many aspects of benefit realization including definition, ownership, and reporting. Chapter 15 is dedicated to Benefit Tracking and Reporting and provides many examples that can be applied to the Program Infographic. Bradley states that benefit tracking and reporting has a dual purpose to both monitor performance and improve performance. Bradley further defines each Benefit with a Benefit Map, which he identified as: “The Benefits Map is a key tool in tracking and attributing benefits. It operates like a signaling map of train movements — as time passes, steady movement along the paths or tracks can be seen, with benefits lit up as targets are achieved (or missed), based on a blue, red, amber, green (BRAG) status. When attributing benefits is difficult, as is the case here in respect of the ‘increased sales revenue,’ the Benefits Map is one of the best vehicles to provide confidence that the benefit is attributable to the Program.” Exhibit 6 - Bradley Benefit Map is an example of a map from his book that identifies this train movement to define the benefit. Bradley then uses the BRAG concept to report the status.
Figure 15.1: Benefits Map for objective—‘To increase sales revenue’
Exhibit 6 – Bradley Benefit Map
(Bradley, Gerald (2010) Benefit Realization Management: A Practical Guide to Achieving Benefits Through Change, Second Edition.)
The Bradley model is an excellent means of tracking individual benefits at a low level of detail; however, the Program Infographic will need to represent these data in a much higher aggregate method. Eventually technology will allow us to have interactive visualization, as explained in Exhibit 7 – Inter Active Visualization, but for now we will consider the Program Infographic to be a more static report that does not have drill down/drill up capability; thus, it needs to have a static definition of the benefit.
Exhibit 7 - Interactive Visualization
The Program Infographic will need to determine the most critical performance indicator to display in the Benefit Status and help steer the stakeholder to understand the greater detail.
The Infographic Structure
While laying out the Program Infographic, the program manager will be challenged to easily represent the relationship between individual projects and the overall Program Benefits. Since most benefits will be impacted by all projects within the program, it would be misleading to directly correlate the benefits to an individual project. Thus, the Program Infographic will need to highlight the object of individual projects, while relating benefits to the overall program. This relationship can be reflected by having a section of the Program Infographic dedicated to the Project Roadmap and how they relate to the program and then another section that relates the Benefits to the overall program. Exhibit 8 – Project Roadmap Benefits, provides an example of relating major benefits of a project to a program, but it does not directly provide the results of the benefits. The Program Infographic structure will tell the story of how the work is packaged in various projects, but will also convey the interrelation of how benefits can span multiple projects.
Exhibit 8 – Project Roadmap Benefits
The story of the Program Infographic is ready to be assembled. Exhibit 9 – A Program Infographic Mockup, presents one method of providing the Program Infographic. This example uses a top-down flow in which the story starts with the Program Charter and then finishes with the Benefits. It is important to note that this is a sketch and focuses more on sections of the Program Infographic than a scaled size of the artifact. An infographic is intended to be viewed online though a browser in which a user can scroll up and down to look at all parts of the infographic. If the Internet is used to obtain a paper copy of the story, then perhaps each section should be a slide in a presentation instead of a single comprehensive image.
Exhibit 9 – A Program Infographic Mockup
The Program Infographic presented in Exhibit 9 has four main sections that are distinguished by different colored backgrounds for each section. The Infographic is structured to support the story of why the business is undergoing the improvements being delivered with the program. Each exhibit in this Program Infographic has a defined purpose as defined below.
16) Program Charter
The Program Charter provides the relationship between the program and the strategic alignment with the business. This part of the story is essential to determine the actors (stakeholders) in the story and their purpose for delivering the benefits. This section should be a reflection of a Program Charter and identifies the overall high-level objectives of the Program (scope), a high level schedule (Time), which should reflect the overall program start and end, and finally, a high-level view of the Financials (cost) of the Program. Notice in this sketch that a bullet point listing of the benefits may also be contained in the Program Charter — this is more to set the stage for the story as opposed to the actual quantifiable deliverables. Finally, the Program Charter information provides the administrative information of the program such as the program sponsor, the program manager; it might include program codes used in cost tracking systems or other administrative data that distinguish them from other programs.
17) Program Summary
The Program Summary aligns with the organization's culture, process, and methodology for implementing change. This should look at the major components of the program and start to align the work with the benefits. This sketch has a reference to the project plan, which should detail the approach for implementing the change. It also references the Benefits Realization Plan as an artifact used to determine the benefits that are outlined in the last section. This is where the organizations that are receiving the benefits are identified, as well as who is accountable for decision making through the Program Life Cycle to ensure the benefits are realized.
18) Project Roadmap
The next section of the Program Infographic defines the individual projects that compromise the roadmap of work efforts. This is a slightly different format than that presented in Exhibit 8, but still follows the basic premise of identifying the high-level objectives of the work packages. This example has a definition of the project manager as well as the high-level parameters. In the Program Infographic itself, the program manager may decide to color code projects to indicate if they are completed, works in process, or future work efforts. The layering of projects in this example helps to identify an interrelation as well as sequence of the individual projects.
The last section of the Program Infographic is the actual benefits themselves. These should be directly related to the Benefit Maps that are displayed in Exhibit 4. This sketch shows benefit reporting to have the four minimum components of reporting the benefit. The Benefit Owner, what the expected benefit at this point in time should be, what the Actual Benefit should be, and finally a BRAG (Blue, Red, Amber, Green) indicator if the benefit is within plan. The Benefits section is where the program manager reports back the Business Analytics to the stakeholders. This is where the data are examined and elevated from data to business intelligence to enhance decision making.
More about the Benefits
Earlier in this paper, there was discussion regarding scoreboards, KPIs, and the Program Infographic, in which it was mentioned that KPIs are related more to the overall metrics for the business and not the direct result of the Program itself. A component of the Program Benefits may include improvement in performance that is represented by a KPI. When the benefit is an improvement in results that are represented by an existing KPI, the Program Infographic needs to present the variance in improvement, and not the actual KPI. For example, if the KPI involves the time to process a customer rebate to decrease from three minutes per unit to two minutes per unit, the Program Infographic should represent the new results against the previous result and show the percentage gain. In other words, the Program Infographic should show the delta of before and after, not just the current amount. If the Program Infographic just showed the current KPI metric of 2.4 minutes per refund process, the user would not know its content. Exhibit 10 – Change in KPI, is an example of the Program Infographic, representing the KPI's improvement after the implementation of project 2.
Exhibit 10 – Change in KPI
Benefit Display in the Program Infographic
Exhibit 9 - A Program Infographic Mockup, showed a mockup of benefits being presented in one row in the Program Infographic. The program manager may wish to present each Benefit as its own row to be able to expand the details of the benefits and be able to more effectively communicate the story of the realized benefit. Exhibit 11 - Detailed Benefit, demonstrates how the benefit story can be expanded to show all the components and how they work together. The Program Infographic has limited size restrictions and can be grown to meet the need of the reporting. In this example, there is a summary of the benefit with a breakdown of the factors that contribute to the final results. The objective is to have simple, relevant data to show results and allow for quick business decisions.
Exhibit 11 – Detailed Benefit
The majority of this paper has focused on a rather bland structure of a Program Infographic and its relationship to the overall company strategy. However, one of the great potential of infographics is being able to visually and dynamically display the results of Business Analytics within a program plan. The remainder of this section will explore various Infographics that have been published on the Internet and relate them to a component of the Program Infographic. The main takeaway of this paper has been that Program Infographics can not only tell the story, but present the benefits realization of the story. It provides a powerful avenue for the program manager to demonstrate creativity, communication skill, and business analytics savvy.
Example 1- Exhibit 12
Takeaway: A good example of showing percentages as part of a complete circle and using various icons or logos to relate the deliverable with external trends. The percentages can be useful in reporting benefits of status of work in process projects, the Tactics can be used in telling the story of how the program fits within the corporate strategic plan. This also has a good utilization of space because it conveys a lot of information through the pictures, with supporting text and a small overall footprint.
Example 2- Exhibit 13
Takeaway: This is reporting a benefit relating to customer expenditure per visit. It is important to note that the Program Infographic can start to reflect results in many different areas and level of detail.
The Business Analytics to calculate the Customer Expenditure Per Visit may be something that already exists in a Standard company report, or may be buried somewhere in the company Big Data. Either way, it helps tell the story of the Benefit Realization in a simple, easy to comprehend manner.
Exhibit 12 – Example 1
Example 3 – Exhibit 14
Takeaway: The Program Infographic allows for telling a story in a small space with hooks into other components of the “big picture.” Exhibit 14 provides an example of maximizing real-estate to present many different domains of information and their assorted relationships. A visual, such as Exhibit 14, can be very effective in telling the story of the context of the program initiative and provide an understanding of the future state of the business. Note: while this is an effective visual in a Program Infographic, it does have a significant cost in dollars and time to create and develop. Although it may be prohibitive to spend the resources to create this for an internal program, this could be the foundation of a useful piece of collateral for marketing the result of explaining the context to future business partners regarding the context of the work. The concept is that the Program Infographic can be an artifact of the Business Knowledge Asset base and contribute in many areas outside of the Program Monitor and Control.
Exhibit 13 – Example 2
The program manager's span of influence has expanded greatly over the past few years and has put increased demands on communicating the story of the program and the benefits the work effort will return to the key stakeholders. Along with the convergence of Big Data and powerful data mining tools, the program manager has more capability to present the story and the benefits in a Program Infographic. By combining text and visuals, the story can be communicated in a more precise formant and provide intelligence to stakeholders to make informed decisions. Along with the tool convergence, the program manager will be involved in more Business Analytics to increase the business intelligence with the Program Objective.
Exhibit 14 – Example 3
The story is told by using a title to identify a common theme and then ties various pieces together. This picture also does an excellent job of taking an abstract number and making an analogy to something the user can understand. The statement “enough posts to fill Time Magazine for 770 years.” provides ability to visual the hugeness of the data with a unit of measure that most people can visualize. – Mark O'Neill
Best Price Computeres (2012). BPC, Articles and Glossary. Retrieved from http://www.bestpricecomputers.co.uk/glossary/business_analytics.htm
Bradley, G. (2010). Benefit realization management: A practical guide to achieving benefits through change, Second Edition. Gower Publishing Limited.
Mehling, H. (2012). The more pervasive the use of business analytics, the better the ROI. Retrieved from http://www.enterpriseappstoday.com/business-intelligence/the-more-pervasive-business-analytics-roi-big-data.html
O'Neill, M. (2012). INFOGRAPHIC: A day on the Internet. Retrieved from http://www.makeuseof.com/tag/infographic-a-day-on-the-internet/
Project Management Institute (2008). The Standard for Program Management — Second Edition Newtown Square, PA:
Project Management Institute (2012). PMI lexicon of project management terms. Newtown Square, PA: Author.
Exhibit 1 Press Release from 2011 Financial Accounting Foundation (FAF) Annual Report. April 16, 2012 Norwalk, Conn. USA
Exhibit 2 Davis, D.L. (2012, October). Business Analytics for PPPM Benefits Realization. 2012 PMI Global Congress Proceedings, Vancouver British Columbia Canada
Exhibit 3 Davis, D.L. (2012, October). Business Analytics for PPPM Benefits Realization. 2012 PMI Global Congress Proceedings, Vancouver British Columbia Canada
Exhibit 4 Davis, D.L. (2012, October). Business Analytics for PPPM Benefits Realization. 2012 PMI Global Congress Proceedings, Vancouver British Columbia Canada
Exhibit 5 – Program Benefits Management Project Management Institute (2008). A Guide to the Program Management Body of Knowledge Newtown Square, PA:
Exhibit 6 Bradley, Gerald (2010) Benefit Realization Management: A Practical Guide to Achieving Benefits Through Change, Second Edition. Gower Publishing Limited.
Exhibit 7 Davis, D.L. (2012, October). Business Analytics for PPPM Benefits Realization. 2012 PMI Global Congress Proceedings, Vancouver British Columbia Canada
Exhibit 8 Davis, D.L. (2012, October). Business Analytics for PPPM Benefits Realization. 2012 PMI Global Congress Proceedings, Vancouver British Columbia Canada
Exhibit 9 Davis, D.L. (2012, October). Business Analytics for PPPM Benefits Realization. 2012 PMI Global Congress Proceedings, Vancouver British Columbia Canada
Exhibit 10 Davis, D.L. (2012, October). Business Analytics for PPPM Benefits Realization. 2012 PMI Global Congress Proceedings, Vancouver British Columbia Canada
Exhibit 11 Davis, D.L. (2012, October). Business Analytics for PPPM Benefits Realization. 2012 PMI Global Congress Proceedings, Vancouver British Columbia Canada
© 2012, David L. Davis
Originally published as a part of the 2012 PMI Global Congress Proceedings – Vancouver, BC, Canada