Aim fire aim--project planning styles in dynamic environments
Rapidly changing project environments create a unique and newly recognized challenge for project managers. Projects in these environments may benefit from customization of the project management approach to moderate the dimension. In this article, the authors describe an exploratory theory-building study aiming to identify the approaches used by experienced practitioners in responding to rapidly changing environments. Thirty-seven interviews were conducted with participants across ten industries (i.e., construction, aerospace, international community development, pharmaceutical, defense, film production, startups, venture capital, research, and information technology). Findings were analyzed according to the planning styles used. Suitable project management approaches employed by experienced practitioners in mature organizations are presented. Results are discussed in the light of previous research and a model for better management in rapidly changing environments proposed.