elements for a project-based management typology
Over the past two decades, the public and the private sectors have increasingly forged working relationships. But not all of these public-private partnerships (PPP) involve the same level of commitment and collaboration. This article examines a four-type model for understanding the kinds of relationships that occur on public agencies partner with private organizations to realize public projects. In doing so, it defines the concept of PPP, noting the differences between public outsourcing and public subcontracting; it overviews the field's literature on PPPs, listing the ways that public organizations complicate the concept of PPP. It describes PPP's evolution and its three research categories, explaining how PPPs are challenging several established disciplines, including public administration, and why researchers need to create PPP's epistemological, conceptual, and methodological markers.