Time Management

 

Introduction

As approved by the PMI Board, Project #121, PMI Knowledge Base was launched to re-examine the PMI “Body of Knowledge” as originally established as a result of a comprehensive effort under PMI’s Ethics, Standards and Accreditation (ESA) project. The Pittsburgh Chapter accepted the task to objectively review the Time Management Function (TMF). This report summarizes the findings and recommendations of that effort.

Findings

A task group was established by the Pittsburgh Chapter to accomplish the objectives of Project #121, PMI Knowledge Base Standards. The task group followed the recommended approach as presented in the project outline (dated 3/23/85).

This group quickly discovered why the original (August ’83) TMF subtask team agonized at length over the approach to defining the TMF content. There was not a problem in identifying new processes and techniques, but rather many hours were spent trying to classify them. The biggest breakthrough the group made was the realization that the “Processes” identify the what (what is project management) and the “Activities” identify the possible ways of how to accomplish the what. Once this concept was realized, a clearer picture emerged as to the logical breakdown of the TMF content.

A second problem emerged when discussions focused on the question of how broad a scope should the “Activities” cover. That is, should they cover scope which may be already developed in other “Processes” or even in other “Functions.” The second breakthrough was the recognition that a particular “Activity” may interface with other “Activities,” both within the TMF and other “Functions,” i.e., what information input is required from other “Activities.”

Initially, the group developed a Functional Chart with the same four “Processes” as the ones included in the Project #121 Outline but with different “Activities.” This was done as an attempt to integrate: the Project #121 “Activities”; the August 1983 PMQ Special Report “Activities”; and the “Activities” developed by the group. Due to many factors (including summer vacations, job commitments, etc.), it was found not to be practical to independently develop a new chart if the August 30th date were to be met, therefore the entire Functional Chart included in the Project #121 Outline was adopted with minor modifications. This new Functional Chart is depicted in Figure 5.0. The subsequent “Process” Breakdown is depicted in Figure 5.1 through 5.4.

Recommendations

The original (August ’83) TMF subtask group did an absolutely outstanding job. This became more evident as their path was retraced to try to maintain an objective viewpoint. Arguments could be made for and against the content of the charts, but the structure of the charts, which was developed during the original project and refined during this project, is basic and sound, and should be maintained.

The content of each “Process” in the TMF needs to be polished and refined. With the breakthrough made during this project, the next project team needs to focus only on one “Process.” The next project manager should standardize the logical breakdown structure of the chart and assign a task group to work only on planning, estimating, scheduling or control. As this group and the original group found, this task will turn out to be a far larger-than-expected assignment, in that a good deal of discussion will be expended as to how and where the various “Activities” and “Techniques” should be assigned. Most importantly, this next project could commence soon, as not to lose the momentum and basic understanding of the approach developed during this project effort.

Overall Statement

Prior to delving into an overall statement describing the Time Management Function (TMF), it is necessary to understand the approach taken by the TMF task group. It was not the intent of the group to develop a cookbook approach to understanding the TMF, but rather to provide a listing of possible ingredients that can be used in an effort to manage the time function in a project. This is meant to be a tool and, like any tool, to be of any use one must know the intended application if the desired results are to be achieved. It is hoped that information contained within this document and the others included with it can be used for the education of potential project managers and to help establish a broader data base for the subject of project management as it relates to TMF.

Time is an integral part of life. However, many people and organizations do not actively manage it. Time, like life itself, can speed by, never being used in an organized effort to achieve some goal, or time can be managed to efficiently complete specific objectives. The better time is managed the more efficient a project will be, assuming all others processes remain the same. Lack of time management can and probably will result in failure of a project.

The management of time is crucial to the successful completion of a project. Not only is the short term realization of success or failure of the project at stake but also the personal reputation of the project manager and the project team members. In some large projects that run for several years at costs in excess of a billion dollars, the financing charges can approach $1 million per day. Even in many smaller projects, especially in a competitive market, it is essential to complete projects on time or lose the edge in the market place.

The function of Time Management has been divided into four processes:

  1. Planning
  2. Estimating
  3. Scheduling
  4. Control

Like the functions of project management these processes are ever changing. However, the four processes are in line with the thinking of the Project Management Institute and are a good starting point in describing the Time Management Function.

1. Planning

Planning consists of identification of the intention of the project management group with respect to the methods and procedures they intend to follow towards the management of the project’s time function. In other words, it includes depicting what the project management group intends to do, how it will be done, and what will be used to do it.

2. Estimating

Estimating, as it relates to the TMF, is the determination of the duration of an activity. Despite all the sophistication, however, it is something we can only attempt with a limited degree of accuracy due to the uncertainties associated with imperfect humans and their working conditions. Although it is a difficult task to estimate work durations with assured accuracy, it is not totally impossible to quantify. The estimator has available to him many modern techniques and historic or past performance data.

3. Scheduling

Scheduling is, in essence, the recognition of realistic time and resource restraints which will, in some way, influence the execution of the plan. To paraphrase this, it could be said that a plan represents how one intends to execute a project without regard to when the project will be executed. Whereas the schedule applies the recognition of time and resource restraints to the plan.

4. Control

Control contains, as its components: the measurement of what actually happened against what was expected to happen; what the results, or effect, will be; and if negative, the implementation of steps to prevent undesirable impacts and, if positive, the implementation of steps to ensure its continuation. Control, therefore, must contain the recognition of what has been happening, and some overt action to ensure that the objectives of the project are met.

Each of the above four processes must contain something of its predecessor, but need not necessarily contain any component of its successor.

Figure C-l Function Chart    Time Management

Function Chart Time Management
Function Impact Matrix Chart Time Management

Figure C-2 Function Impact Matrix Chart Time Management

Glossary Of Terms

Activity Description: Any combination of characters which easily identifies an activity to any recipient of the schedule.

Activity Duration: The best estimate of the time (hours, days, weeks, months, etc.) necessary for the accomplishment of the work involved in an activity, considering the nature of the work and the resources needed for it.

Actual Finish Date: The calendar date work actually began on an activity. It must be prior to or equal to the data date. The remaining duration of this activity is zero.

Actual Start Date: The calendar date work actually began on an activity. It must be prior to or equal to the data date.

Analysis: The study and examination of something complex and separation into its more simple components. Analysis typically includes discovering not only what are the parts of the thing being studied, but also how they fit together and why they are arranged in this particular way. A study of project variances for cause, impact, corrective actions, and results.

Approve: To accept as satisfactory. Approval implies that the thing approved has the endorsement of the approving agency; however, the approval may still require confirmation by somebody else. In management use, the important distinction is between APPROVE and AUTHORIZE. Persons who approve something are willing to accept it as satisfactory for their purposes, but this decision may not be final. Approval may be by several persons. The person who authorizes has final organization authority. This authorization is final approval.

Archive Tape: A computer tape which contains historical project information.

As-Built Schedule: The final project schedule which depicts actual completion (finish) dates, actual durations, and start dates.

Assurance: To examine with the intent to verify.

Authorize: To give final approval. A person who can authorize something is vested with authority to give final endorsement which requires no further approval.

Backward Pass: Calculation of late finish times (dates) for all uncompleted network activities. Determined by working backwards through each activity.

Bar Chart: A graphic presentation of work activities shown by a time-scaled bar line (sometimes referred to as a Gantt chart).

Breakdown: Identification of the smallest activities or tasks in a job according to a defined procedure.

Budget: A planned allocation of resources.

Calendar: The calendar used in developing a project plan. This calendar identifies project work days, and can be altered so weekends, holidays, weather days, etc., are not included.

Calendar Range: The span of the calendar from the calendar start date through the last calendar unit performed. The calendar start date is unit number one.

Calendar Start Date: The first calendar unit of the working calendar.

Calendar Unit: The smallest unit of the calendar produced. This unit is generally in hours, days, or weeks; can also be grouped in shifts.

Change: An increase or decrease in any of the project characteristics.

Commissioning: Activities performed for the purpose of substantiating the capability of the project to function as designed.

Commitment: An agreement to consign, or reserve the necessary RESOURCES to fulfill an agreement, until EXPENDITURE occurs. A commitment is an EVENT.

Completed Activity: An activity with an actual finish date and no remaining duration.

Constraint: Any factor which affects when an activity can be scheduled. (See RESTRAINT)

Contingency Plan: A plan that identifies key assumptions beyond the Project Manager’s control, and their probability of occurrence. The plan identifies alternative strategies for achieving project success.

Contract Dates: The dates specified in the contract that impact the Project Plan.

Crashing: Action to decrease the duration of an activity or project by increasing the expenditure of resources.

Criteria: A statement that provides objectives, guidelines, procedures, and standards that are to be used to execute the development, design, and/or implementation portions of a project.

Critical Activity: Any activity on a critical path.

Critical Path: The series of interdependent activities of a project, connected end-to-end, which determines the shortest total length of the project. The critical path of a project may change from time to time as activities are completed ahead of or behind schedule.

Critical Path Method (CPM): A scheduling technique using precedence diagrams for graphic display of the work plan. The method used to determine the length of a project and to identify the activities that are critical to the completion of the project.

Critical Path Network (CPM): A plan for the execution of a project which consists of activities and their logical relationships to one another.

Current Finish Date: The current estimate of the calencar date when an activity will be completed.

Current Start Date: The current estimate of the calendar date when an activity will begin.

Data Collection: The gathering and recording of facts, changes and forecasts for reporting and future planning.

Data Date (DD): The calendar date that separates actual (historical) data from scheduled data.

Data Refinements: Rework or redefinition of logic or data that may have previously been developed in the planning subfunction as required to properly input milestones, restraints, priorities and resources.

Date of Acceptance: The date on which the client agrees to the final acceptance of the project. Commitments against the capital authorization cease at the DATE OF ACCEPTANCE. This is an EVENT.

Detail Schedule: A schedule used to communicate the day-to-day activities to working levels on the project.

Discussion: Dialogue explaining implications and impacts on objectives. The elaboration and description of facts, findings and alternatives.

Display: A pictorial, verbal, written, tabulated or graphical means of transmitting findings, results and conclusions.

Distribution: The dissemination of information for the purpose of communication, approval or decision-making.

Documentation: The collection of reports, user information and references for distribution and retrieval, displays, back-up information and record pertaining to the project.

Dummy Activity: An activity, always of zero duration, used to show logical dependency when an activity can-not start before another is complete, but which does not lie on the same path through the network.

Early Finish Date (EF): The earliest time an activity may be completed equal to the early start of the activity plus its remaining duration.

Early Start Date (ES): The earliest time any activity may begin as logically constrained by the network for a given data date.

Earned Value: A method of reporting project status in terms of both cost and time. It is the budgeted value of work performed regardless of the actual cost incurred.

Endorsement: Written approval. Endorsement signifies personal understanding and acceptance of the thing endorsed, and recommends further endorsement by higher levels of authority if necessary. Endorsement of COMMITMENT by a person vested with appropriate authority signifies authorization. See APPROVE, AUTHORIZE.

Event: An event is an identifiable single point in time on a project.

Expenditure: The conversion of RESOURCES. An expenditure is an EVENT. Conversion of resources may take several forms:

Exchange - conversion of title or ownership (e.g. dollars for materials).

Consumption - conversion of a liquid resource to a less recoverable state (i.e., expenditure of time, human resources, dollars to produce something of value; or the incorporation of inventoried materials into FIXED ASSETS).

Fast Track: The starting or implementation of a project by overlapping activities, commonly entailing the overlapping of design and construction (manufacturing) activities.

Feasibility: The assessment of capability of being completed; the possibility, probability and suitability of accomplishment.

Floating Task: A task that can be performed earlier or later in the schedule without affecting the project duration.

Forecast: An estimate and prediction of future conditions and events based on information and knowledge available at the time of the forecast.

Forecasting: The work performed to estimate and predict future conditions and events. Forecasting is an ACTIVITY of the management function of planning. Forecasting is often confused with budgeting, which is a definitive allocation of resources rather than a prediction or estimate.

Forward Pass: Network calculations which determine the earliest start/earliest finish time (date) of each activity. These calculations are from data date through the logical flow of each activity.

Free Float (EF): The amount of time (in work units) an activity may be delayed without affecting the early start of the activity immediately following.

Gantt Charts: See Bar Charts

General Sequencing: An overview of the order of performing activities.

Graph: The display or drawing that shows the relationship between activities. Pictorial representation of relative variables.

Guideline: A document that RECOMMENDS methods to be used to accomplish an objective.

Hammock: An aggregate or summary activity. All related activities are tied as one summary activity and reported at the summary level.

Hanger: A break in a network path.

Impact Interpretation: Clarification of the significance of a variance with respect to overall objectives.

Imposed Date (External): A predetermined calendar date set without regard to logical considerations of the network.

Implementation, Completion of: Completion of implementation means that the project team has:

  1. Provided completed project activities in accordance with the project requirements.
  2. Completed project close out.

In-Progress Activity: An activity that has been started but is not completed on a given date.

In-Service Date: The in-service date is that point in time when the project is placed in a state of readiness or availability when it can be used for its specifically assigned function.

Input Limits: Imposition of limitations to the resources through which the plan will be executed.

Input Milestones: Imposed target dates or target events that are to be accomplished which control the plan with respect to time.

Input Restraints: Imposed external restraints, such as dates reflecting input from others and target dates reflecting output required by others, and such items as float allocation and constraints.

Input Priorities: Imposed priorities or sequence desired with respect to the scheduling of activities within previously imposed constraints.

Interface Activity: An activity connecting a node in one subnet with a node in another subnet, representing logical interdependence. The activity identifies points of interaction or commonality between the project activities and outside influences.

Interfaces Program: A computer program that relates status system line items to their parent activities in the Project Plan.

Interpretation: Reduction of information to appropriate and understandable terms and explanations.

Key Event Schedule: A schedule comprised of key events or milestones. These events are generally critical accomplishments planned at time intervals through-out the project and used as a basis to monitor overall project performance. The format may be either network or bar chart and may contain minimal detail at a highly summarized level. This is often referred to as a milestone schedule.

Lag: The logical relationship between the start and/or finish of one activity and the start and/or finish of another activity.

Lag Relationship: The four basic types of lag relationships between the start and/or finish of a Work Item and the start and/or finish of another Work Item are:

  1. Finish to Start.
  2. Stan to Finish
  3. Finish to Finish
  4. Start to Start

Late Finish (LF): The latest time an activity may be completed without delaying the project finish date.

Late Start (LS): The latest time an activity may begin without delaying the project finish date of the network. This date is calculated as the late finish minus the duration of the activity.

Legal Tape: A computer tape that contains the contract base project plan as the first entry, and the (resource levelled) Target Project Plan as the second entry. Also, all approved major changes to: logic, time or resources will be added, as a separate entry, to the Legal Tape. No other entries will be made to this tape.

Level Finish /Schedule (SF): The date when the activity is scheduled to be completed using the RESOURCE ALLOCATION PROCESS.

Level Float: The difference between the level finish and the late finish date.

Level of Detail: A policy of expression of content of plans, schedules and reports in accordance with the scale of the breakdown of information.

Level Start/Schedule (SS): The date the activity is scheduled to begin using the RESOURCE ALLOCATION PROCESS. This date is equal to or later in time than early start.

Line Item: The smallest unit of product whose status is tracked in a status system.

Lists: The tabulations of information organized in meaningful fashion.

Logic: The interdependency of the activities in the network.

Management Time: Manhours related to the Project Management Team.

Method: The manner or way in which work is done. When formalized into a prescribed manner of performing specified work, a method becomes a PROCEDURE.

Milestone: A significant event in the project. (Key Item or Key Event.)

Milestones for Control: Interim objectives, points of arrival in terms of time for purposes of progress management.

Near-Critical Activity: An activity that has low total float.

Near-Term Activities: Activities that are planned to begin, be in process, or be completed during a relatively short period of time; such as 30, 60, or 90 days.

Network Diagram: A schematic display of the sequential and logical relationship of the activities which comprise the project. Two popular drawing conventions or notations for scheduling are “arrow” and “precedence” diagramming.

Non-Work Unit: A calendar unit during which work may not be performed on an activity, such as weekends and holidays.

Objective: A predetermined result; the end toward which effort is directed.

Operation: The operation of a new facility is described by a variety of terms, each depicting an EVENT in its early operating life. These are defined below, in chronological order:

Initial Operation - the project milestone date on which material is first introduced into the system for the purpose of producing products.

Normal Operation - the project milestone date on which the facility has demonstrated the capability of sustained operations at design conditions and the facility is accepted by the client.

Original Duration: The first estimate of work time needed to execute an activity. The most common units of time are hours, days and weeks.

Path: The continuous, linear series of connected activities through a network.

Performance: The calculation of achievement used to measure and manage project quality.

Pert: Program Evaluation and Review Technique. An event and probability based network analysis system generally used in the research and development field where, at the planning stage, activities and their durations between events are difficult to define. Typically used on large programs where the projects involve numerous organizations at widely different locations.

Precedence Diagram Method (PDM) Arrow: A graphical symbol in PDM networks used to represent the Lag describing the relationship between Work Activities.

PDM Finish to Finish Relationship: This relationship restricts the finish of the Work Activity until some specified duration following the finish of another Work Activity.

PDM Finish To Start Relationship: The relationship where the Work activity may start just as soon as another Work Activity is finished.

PDM Start To Finish Relationship: The relationship restricts the finish of the Work Activity until some duration following the start of another Work Activity.

PDM Start To Start Relationship: This relationship restricts the start of the Work Activity until some specified duration following the start of the preceding Work Activity.

Percent Complete: A ratio comparison of the completion status to the current projection of total work.

Planned Activity: An activity which has not started or finished prior to the data date.

Plan Development: Stage of planning during which the plan is initially created.

Planner Time: Manhours related to the planning function.

Plug Date: A date externally assigned to an activity that establishes the earliest or latest date in which the activity is allowed to start or finish.

Policy: Directives issued by management for guidance and direction where uniformity of action is essential. Directives pertain to the approach, techniques, authorities and responsibilities for carrying out the management function.

Precedence Diagram Method (PDM): A method of constructing a logic network using nodes to represent the activities and connecting them by lines that show dependencies.

Predecessor Activity: Any activity that exists on a common path with the activity in question and occurs before the activity in question.

Prescribe: To direct specified action. To prescribe implies that action must be carried out in a specified fashion.

Priorities: The imposed sequences desired with respect to the scheduling of activities within previously imposed constraints.

Procedure: A prescribed method of performing specified work.

Progress: Development to a more advanced stage. Progress relates to a progression of development and therefore shows relationships between current conditions and past conditions.

Progress Analysis: The evaluation of calculated progress against the approved schedule and the determination of its impact.

Progress Trend: An indication on whether the progress of an activity or of a project is increasing, decreasing, or remaining the same (steady) over a period of time.

Project Brief: See Project Plan.

Project Change: An approved change to project work content caused by a scope of work change or a special circumstance on the project (weather, strikes, etc.).

Project Duration: The elapsed duration from project start date through project finish date.

Project Finish Date/Schedule: The latest schedule calendar finish date of all activities on the project derived from network or resource allocations process calculations.

Project Objectives: Project scope expressed in terms of time, resources and outputs.

Project Plan: A management summary document that gives the essentials of a project in terms of its objectives, justification, and how the objectives are to be achieved. It should describe how all the major activities under each project management function are to be accomplished, including that of overall project control. The Project Plan will evolve through successive stages of the Project Life Cycle. Prior to project implementation, for example, it may be referred to as a Project Brief. (See also Baseline and Baseline Concept.)

Project Planning: The identification of the project objectives and the ordered activity necessary to complete the project.

Project Segments: Project subdivisions expressed as manageable components.

Project Start Date/Schedule: The earliest calendar start date among all activities in the network.

Proposal Project Plan: Usually the first plan issued on a project and accompanies the proposal. It contains key analysis, procurement, and implementation milestones; historical data; and any client-supplied information. Usually presented in bar chart form or summary level network, this schedule is used for inquiry and contract negotiations.

Real Time: The application of external time constraints which might affect the calendar time position of execution of each activity in the schedule.

Recommend: To offer or suggest for use. Recommendation describes the presentation of plans, ideas, or things to others for adoption. To recommend is to offer something with the option of refusal.

Refinement: The rework, redefinition or modification of the logic or data that may have previously been developed in the planning process as required to properly input milestones, restraints and priorities.

Remaining Available Resources: The difference between the resource availability pool and the level schedule resource requirements. Computed from the resource allocation process.

Remaining Duration: The estimated work units needed to complete an activity as of the data date.

Remaining Float (RF): The difference between the early finish and the late finish date.

Reporting: Planning activity involved with the development and issuance of (internal) time management analysis reports and (external) progress reports.

Resource: Any factors, except time, required or consumed to accomplish an activity.

Any substantive requirement of an activity that can be quantified and defined e.g.: manpower, equipment, material, etc.).

Resource Allocation Process: The scheduling of activities in a network with the knowledge of certain resource constraints and requirements. This process adjusts activity level start and finish dates to conform to resource availability and use.

Resource Availability Date: The calendar date when a resource pool becomes available for a given resource.

Resource Availability Pool: The amount of resource availability for any given allocation period.

Resource Code: The code used to identify a given resource type.

Resource Description: The actual name or identification associated with a resource code.

Resource-Limited Planning: The planning of activities so that predetermined resource availability pools are not exceeded. Activities are started as soon as resources are available (subject to logical constraints), as required by the activity.

Resource Plots: A display of the amount of resources required as a function of time on a graph. Individual, summary, incremental, and cumulative resource curve levels can be shown.

Responsibility: Charged personally with performing the physical and mental effort (work) necessary to fulfill the requirements of a position. Responsibility can be delegated but cannot be shared.

Restraint: An externally imposed factor affecting when as activity can be scheduled. The external factor may be manpower, cost, equipment, or other such RESOURCE.

Review: To examine critically to determine suitability or accuracy.

Schedule Pictorial Display: A display in the form of a video, still picture or slide that represents scheduling information.

Scheduling: The recognition of realistic time and resource restraints which will, in some way, influence the execution of the PLAN.

Scope Change: A deviation from the originally agreed to project scope.

Secondary Float (SF): The difference between the CPM calculated early finish and the resulting imposed finish date.

Specification: An information vehicle that provides a precise description of a specific physical item, procedure, or result for the purpose of purchase and/or implementation of the item or service

Stabilization: The period of time between CONTINUOUS OPERATION and NORMAL OPERATION. This period encompasses those activities necessary to establish reliable operation at design conditions of capacity, product quality, and efficiency.

Standard: A basis for the uniformity of measuring performance. Also, a document that prescribes a specific consensus solution to a repetitive design, operating, or maintenance problem.

Standard Network Diagram: A predefined string of activities used to shorten the time needed to develop a CPM network.

Standard Procedure: prescribes that a certain kind of work be done in the same way wherever it is performed.

Standard Proposal Schedule: A pre-established network on file.

Start-up: That period after DATE OF INITIAL OPERATION, during which the unit is brought up to acceptable production capacity and quality. Start-up is the activity that commences on the Date of Initial Operation. Start-up is an ACTIVITY that is often confused (used interchangeably) with Date of Initial Operation.

Status: The condition of the project at a specified point in time.

Status System: System for tracking status at lowest level of detail.

Statusing: Indicating most current project status.

Strategic Plan: The target plan prioritized by critical total float from the current schedule.

Subnet: The subdivision of a network into fragments usually representing some form of subproject.

Successor Activity: Any activity that exists on a common path with the activity in question and occurs after the activity in question.

Summary Schedule: A single page, usually time-scaled, project schedule. Typically included in Management level progress reports. Also known as MILESTONE SCHEDULE.

Take-off: A term used for identifying and recording from drawings the material and quantities for estimating the time and cost required for the completion of an activity.

Target Date: The date an activity is desired to be started or completed; accepted as the date generated by the initial CPM schedule operation and resource allocation process.

Target Plan: The target plan prioritized by critical total float from the current schedule.

Target Reporting: A method of reporting the current schedule against some established base line schedule and the computation of variances between them.

Task Types: Characterization of tasks by resource requirement responsibility, discipline, jurisdiction, function, etc.

Tied Activity: An activity that must start within a specified time or immediately after its predecessor’s completion.

Time Delay Claim: A request for an extension to the CONTRACT DATES.

Time-Limited Scheduling: The scheduling of activities so predetermined resource availability pools are not exceeded unless the further delay will cause the project finish to be delayed. Activities can be delayed only until their late start date. However, activities will begin when the late start date is reached, even if resource limits are exceeded. Networks with negative total float time should not be processed by time-limited scheduling.

Time Periods: Comparing calculated time versus specified time in relation to constraints and time span objectives.

Total Float (TF): The amount of time (in work units) that an activity may be delayed from its early start without delaying the project finish date. Total float is equal to the late finish minus the early finish or the late start minus the early start of the activity.

Trending: The REVIEW of proposed changes in resources allocation and the FORECASTING of their impact on BUDGET. To be effective, Trending should be regularly performed and the impacts of budget plotted graphically. Used in this manner, trending supports the decision to AUTHORIZE the change.

Update: To revise the schedule to reflect the most current information of the project.

Variance: Any difference between the projected duration for an activity and the actual duration of the activity. Also the difference between projected start and finish dates and actual or revised start and finish dates.

Any actual or potential deviation from an intended or budgeted figure or plan. A variance can be a difference between intended and actual time.

Verification: The confirmation of data; application of judgment, and comparison with other sources and previous monitor results.

Work Unit: A calendar time unit when work may be performed on an activity.

Working Calendar: The total calendar dates which cover all project activities, from start to finish.

Workload: Review of planned work versus acceptable limits on resources and availability of resources over time spans.

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23.  Stuckenbrook, L.C. The Implementation of Project Management: The Professional’s Handbook. New York: Addison Wesley, 1981.

24.  Trower, M.H. Fast Track to Project Delivery: Systems Approach to Project Management. Management Review vol. 62 (April, 1973), pp. 19-23.

25.  Wideman, R.M. ESA and All That. Project Management Journal, March, 1985, XVI, 1, 34-42.

26.  Wiest, J.D. & Levey, F.K. A Management Guide to PERT/CPM. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1981.

27.  Woodgate, H.S. Planning by Network: Project Planning and Control Using Network Techniques. London: Business Publications, 1967.

28.  ———. Conflict Management in Project Life Cycles. Sloan Management Review, (Summer 1975), pp. 31-50.

29.  ———. Proceedings of the Annual Seminar/Symposiums. Drexel Hill, PA: The Project Management Institute.

30.  ———. Project Mangement Journal (Quarterly), Drexel Hill, PA: The Project Management Institute.

31.  ———. Systems Analysis and Design Using Network Techniques. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. 1973.

THE PM NETWORK August, 1987

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