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During the past few years, the work of Dan Pink has been broadly adopted as a foundation for success when building agile teams. His work shows that intrinsic motivators are far more important that extrinsic (money, nice offices) motivators. These intrinsic motivators are:
People want to get better, to develop their skills so that they may be effective at what they do. In Disciplined Agile this is supported by a learning-oriented approach where teams regularly reflect on how well they are working, where teams explore new ideas and technologies through spikes, where people are responsible to share their skills and knowledge with others, and where teams purposely explore both the problem and solution domains in an evolutionary manner. Additionally, the Disciplined Agile (DA) toolkit promotes the strategy of people being “T-skilled” generalizing specialists who have one or more specialities but also a broad knowledge of software engineering and the domain that they are working in.
People want to be able to direct their own lives. In agile this is best represented by the principles that teams should be self-organizing and they should own their own process. Disciplined Agile enhances these principles by pointing out that self organization must be tempered with appropriate governance and that to effectively own your own process teams need light-weight guidance (via DA’s goal-driven approach).
People are motivated by goals that are bigger than themselves. On Disciplined Agile Delivery teams the first milestone is to come to a common vision with your stakeholders, a vision that guides the team throughout construction, a concept that is captured in DA’s Fulfill the Team Mission process goal. Furthermore, DA’s enterprise awareness philosophy promotes the idea that teams should look beyond themselves to understand and then do what is best for the organization that they work for, instead of what is convenient for them.
Just as there are factors that help to motivate individuals, there are dynamics that help to motivate effective performance on teams. The most succinct description that we’ve found come from the results of a study within Google describing what they believe to be the five key dynamics of successful teams:
Team members need to feel free to take risks and to share ideas without fear of recrimination. Disciplined Agile team members have the responsibility to respect one another, to have humility when they are interacting with others, to run experiments, to work collaboratively, to share their skills and knowledge with others, and to be receptive to learning new ideas and skills from others as well.
Team members need to be able to count on one another. Everyone must work in a trustworthy, open, and honest manner. Disciplined Agile team members have the responsibility to work in a trustworthy manner, to fulfill their commitments, and to provide information in a timely manner even if the work is incomplete.
Structure & clarity
The vision of the team, the roles and responsibilities of the people on the team, and the plans for how the team will work together must be clear. Disciplined Agile teams are self organizing, albeit with appropriate governance to guide and enhance their efforts, an implication of which is that they are responsible for their own structure and bringing clarity to their own domain.
Meaning of work
The team should be working on something that provides meaning to them. A solution delivery team will work on developing or configuring a solution that adds real value to their stakeholders; an enterprise architecture team will develop, support and evolve a vision for your organization; and a data management team will support and evolve the information assets within your organization. Different teams with different goals will find different meanings – IT isn’t just about creating potentially shippable software.
Impact of work
The work that a team does needs to matter, or as Dan Pink would say the work has purpose.
Organizations are complex adaptive systems. The are complex because they are a dynamic network of interacting teams whose whole is greater than the sum of the parts (well, this is true at least of effective organizations). The are adaptive because individual teams self-organize, learn and evolve (as per agile advice) and more importantly changes in a given team affect changes in other teams that they interact with. In a complex adaptive system the teams are similar to one another, they may share cultural aspects and goals, even though the teams and the organization as a whole evolve over time in response to changes in their environment.
The diagram below overviews the high-level workflow of a Disciplined Agile IT department. Although the focus of the diagram is on process it implies potential organizational structure. A medium-to-large sized organization will have many development teams, they may have a team focused on release management/coordination, an operations team, a data team, an architecture team, and so on. Sometimes the relationship between process and organization structure isn’t one to one, for example it’s common to see the same team responsible for enterprise architecture and reuse engineering for example, or a single team handling release management, operations, and support.
For the sake of simplicity, let’s assume that your IT department has multiple delivery teams (the greenish bubbles) and one team for each of the other activities (the yellow and grey bubbles). This department is a complex adaptive system in that learnings in a delivery team that motivate changes in the way that they work would potentially affect how that team’s Architecture Owner interacts with the Enterprise Architecture team, how their Product Owner interacts with the Product Management team, how team members interact with the Reuse Engineering team, and many other possibilities. These changes in turn may motivate changes in behaviour within the Enterprise Architecture team, the Product Management team, and so on. Similarly, changes within the Enterprise Architecture team may ripple out to the Reuse Engineering team, the delivery teams, and so on. To increase the velocity of adaptive learning the Disciplined Agile Framework includes the Continuous Improvement process blade to explicitly share learnings across the organization.